English Teaching Models Presented by INDAWAN SYAHRI FKIP UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH PALEMBANG
CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING (CTL) • CTL is a holistic system that reflects the way nature works. • CTL is a system that stimulates the brain to weave patterns that express meaning. • CTL is a brain-compatible system of instruction that generates meaning by linking academic content with the context of a students’ daily life. • CTL system contributes to helping students make sense of schoolwork.
8 COMPONENTS OF CTL SYSTEM • Making meaningful connections • Doing significant work • Self-regulated learning • Collaborating • Critical and creative thinking • Nurturing the individual • Reaching high standard • Using authentic assessment
THE SIGNIFICANCE FOR CTL OF 3 SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES • CTL reflects the principle of interdependence. • CTL reflects the principle of differentiation. • CTL reflects the principle of self-organization.
CTL in ELT • What is competency-based syllabus? In relation to Competency-based Curriculum. • What competencies that the students have to master and apply? • Which approach that is applicable in enabling the students to posses the competencies? • How to assess the students’ achievement?
Communicative Competence • Discourse competence: the ability of the speaker to select, sequence, and arrange words, structures, and utterances to create a unified spoken or written text. • Linguistic competence: the ability to accurately use morphology, syntax, and lexicon in structurally accurate ways. • Actional competence: the ability to appropriately understand and convey communicative intent in interaction. This component includes such items as speech acts. • Sociocultural competence: knowledge of the target culture’s or target culture’s value and traditions and the ability to communicate appropriately within the context. • Strategic competence: the speaker’s knowledge of various communication strategies and the ability to use them.
Sociocultural competence Discourse competence Linguistic competence Actional competence Strategic competence
GENRE-BASED APPROACH • Genres are how things get done, when language is used to accomplish them (Martin, 1985). • Genre must be centered not on the substance of form of discourse but on the action it is used to accomplish (Miller, 1984). • A genre is the role of communicative purpose (Swale, 1990). • The purpose interacts with features of text at every discourse level (Johns, 1997). • Genre-based approaches have privileged communicative purpose. • In relation to literacy, genres are simply defined as text types; i.e., descriptive, narrative, explanatory texts, and the like.
TEACHING MEDIA • Brochures • Shopping list • Letters • Pictures • Charts • Newspaper • Magazines