A. Friend, follower of Sigmund Freud but disagreed over role of sexuality in psychological functioning B. Student of religion, philosophy and medicine before specializing in Psychiatry I. Carl Jung - Psychological Types, (1920)
come from patients at clinic – Jung finds 1. natural inclinations toward extraversion or introversion C. Original Psychological Type observations
thinking/feeling sensation/intuition. 2. Four basic psychological functions –
A. Isabella Myers begins to develop Jung's ideas, adding fourth category of personality type, Judging/Perceiving B. Myers' daughter, Kathryn Briggs, helps her mother develop a questionnaire to help people identify a four characteristic personality type - The Myers-Brigg Type Indicator (MBTI) C. Extensive research and development occurred during WWII on servicemen and women and further refinement of the indicator occurred II. Myers and Briggs - The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (1962)
III. David Keirsey - Please Understand Me (1978) • Develops notions of "temperaments" based in • how people gather information (Sensation/iNtuition) and • how they evaluate it (Thinking/Feeling) B. Develops short form indicator which identifies two characteristic Temperaments: - The Keirsey Temperament Sorter
CONCRETE in communicating COOPERATIVE in implementing goals highly skilled in LOGISTICS. most developed intelligent operations: - supervising and inspecting (SJT adminstering), or - supplying and protecting (SJF conserving). action oriented, respect themselves to degree they do good deeds, confident of themselves to the degree they are respectable. In search of security trusting in legitimacy and hungering for membership. stoical about the present, pessimistic about the future, fatalistic about the past, preferred time and place is the past Educationally they go for commerce avocationally for regulations, vocationally for materiel work. They tend to be enculturating as parents, helpmates as spouses, and conformity oriented as children. There are even more Guardians than Artisans around, at least 40% and as many as 45% of the population. SJ Guardian
Educationally they go for arts and crafts, avocationally for techniques, vocationally for operations work. permissive as parents, playmates as spouses, play oriented as children. There are many Artisans to be found in many places where the action is, at least 35% and as many as 40% of the population. CONCRETE in communicating UTILITARIAN in implementing goals, skilled in TACTICAL VARIATION. most practiced and developed intelligent operations are usually promoting and operating (SPT expediting), or displaying and composing (SPF improvizing). proud of themselves to the degree they are graceful in action, respect themselves to the degree they are daring, feel confident of themselves to the degree they are adaptable. "Sensation Seeking Personality" – trusting in spontaniety and hungering for impact on others. hedonic about the present, optimistic about the future, cynical about the past, preferred time and place is the here and now. SP Artisan
Educationally they go for the sciences, avocationally for technology, and vocationally for systems work. individualizing as parents, mindmates as spouses, learning oriented as children. Rationals are very infrequent, comprising as few as 5% and no more than 7% of the population. ABSTRACT in communicating and UTILITARIAN in implementing goals, skilled in STRATEGIC ANALYSIS. most practiced and developed intelligent operations tend to be marshalling and planning (NTJ organizing), or inventing and configuring (NTP engineering). proud of themselves to the degree they are competent in action, respect themselves to the degree they are autonomous, feel confident of themselves to the degree they are strong willed. "Knowledge Seeking Personality" – trusting in reason and hungering for achievement. pragmatic about the present, skeptical about the future, solipsistic about the past, NT Rationalist
ABSTRACT in communicating COOPERATIVE in implementing goals, skilled in DIPLOMATIC INTEGRATION. most practiced and developed intelligent operations are usually teaching and counseling (NFJ mentoring), or conferring and tutoring (NFP advocating) an instinct for interpersonal integration, learn ethics with ever increasing zeal, sometimes become diplomatic leaders, speak interpretively and metaphorically of the abstract world of their imagination. proud of themselves to the degree they are empathic in action, respect themselves to the degree they are benevolent, feel confident of themselves to the degree they are authentic. search for their unique identity, hunger for deep and meaningful relationships, wish for a little romance each day, trust their intuitive feelings implicitly, aspire for profundity. "Identity Seeking Personality" – credulous about the future, mystical about the past, preferred time and place are the future and the pathway. Educationally they go for the humanities, avocationally for ethics, vocationally for personnel work. family interactions strive for mutuality, provide spiritual intimacy for the mates, opportunity for fantasy for their children, continuous self-renewal. Idealists do not abound,being as few as 8% and nor more than 10% of the population. NF Idealist
IV. Debunking Myths About Type • Psychological types are not astrological signs - people should not be pigeon-holed by type 2. Most people have aspects of both their dominant function as well as their subordinate function, i.e., no one is incapable of thinking or feeling. Type simply indicates which function one naturally prefers. 3. Many people function admirably using preferences that are not natural to them particularly in work and social situations. 4. Differing types are not wrong, they are simply different. People aren't necessarily just being pigheaded when they don't see things the way it's obvious to you they actually are.
Debunking Myths About Type 5. While it might seem ideal to have an organization composed of people of like-minded temperaments, in fact, such organizations tend to be imbalanced. Opposites may not always attract but they are useful to holistic operation of organizations. 6. Close scores do not necessarily indicate the degree to which a preference is present; rather it indicates the degree to which a person is certain about that preference in themselves. 7. Not only is everyone not the same in terms of types, the distribution of types in the population are also not uniform. Hence, some disciplines and vocations will draw higher percentages of given temperaments than others making them distinguishable by a given way of approaching the world and functioning.
V. Dimensions of Type Your Type is ENFP Extroverted Intuitive Feeling Perceiving Strength of the preferences % 11 100 67 89
Extraversion (E) - Introversion (I) • Where do you draw your energy? How do you prefer to interact with the world?
Overall stimulation of thinking is toward the outer world – people and things Knows a lot of people, considers many of them friends Talks first, thinks later, often reasons out loud, spontaneous - Approachable, easy to engage - Oblivious to background noise, distractions - Works in groups, comfortable in crowds - Prefers talking to listening - Requires affirmation from others about most things A. Extroversion (E) -
- Needs time to "recharge" after being drained by working, socializing "talk is cheap" - suspicious of others compliments, hates "reinventing the wheel“ Overall stimulation of thinking is toward the inner world - thoughts and reflections - Rehearses things before speaking, wishes others would, too - More of a listener than speaker - Sometimes seen as shy, aloof, even "stuck up" - Prefers to share special occasions with one or two others, avoids crowds - Need to state ideas, feelings without interruption B. Introversion (I) -
Extraversion(E) v. Introversion(I) "If you don’t know what an extravert is thinking, you haven’t been listening.But, if you don’t know what an introvert is thinking, you haven’t asked!"
C. Implications for Philosophy and Law - ability to reflect, work in inner world of thoughts is critical to philosophy and law (I) - listening skills crucial for purposes of testimony, cross-examination (I) • ability to speak, argue with interruptions, make spontaneous objections work in groups, crowds, critical to courtroom practice (E) - Labor law draws Extraverts, real property and tax law draws Introverts
C. Implications for Philosophy and Law • US Population - • Extraversion 75% • Introversion 25% • US Lawyers - - Extraversion 43% - Introversion 57%
Sensing (S) ---------- iNtuition (N) 2. How do you gather data? Which means do you prefer to perceive the world?
Gives attention to what is being perceived by way of the five senses - sight, sound, feel, taste, smell - Prefer specific answers to specific questions - Concentrate on immediate, no wonder about what's next - Prefer tasks with immediate, tangible results - Preference for status quo, past - "If it ain't broken, don't fix it" - Needs to work through facts, figures, ideas sequentially - Fantasy is a dirty word - Frustrated without clearly delineated plans - hates "Here's the overall picture.." Very literal in use of words - "Can't see the forest for the (individual) trees." - "Seeing is believing." "I'm from Missouri - show me." A. Sensing (S) -
- Seek connections, interrelatedness behind most things - Focus on meaning, patterns - Prefer general answers, irritated when pushed for specifics Focus on "big picture" Gives attention to what is being perceived by the imagination - finds patterns and relationships - Thinks about several things at once - Find the future and its possibilities more intriguing than frightening - Accused of being "absent-minded," believes that "boring details" is redundant - Time is relative; punctuality is an option - Desire to figure out how things work B. iNtuition (N) -
"Sensing types help intuitives keep their head out of the clouds,while intuitives help sensing types keep their head out of a rut." Sensate v. iNtuitive
C. Implications for Philosophy and Law - - Philosophy as a discipline deals with abstract thought, by definition a preference for iNtuitive process
- Law requires both the ability to theorize (N) but also the ability to appreciate detail of fact and legal materials (S) - iNtuitives tend to see the principles behind the law, Sensates focus on the facts of the cases and the literal wording of statutes, cases - iNtuitives are more likely to make arguments based in public policy (the law's purpose is…thus, in this case we should…) - Sensates are more likely to argue against any expansion of law based in policy (the legislature has not provided that remedy and it is not the duty of the court to create one by its decisions) Sensate lawyers prefer real estate, tax and general practice; iNtuitive lawyers chose criminal, litigation, appellate and labor law
US Population Sensing 70% iNtuition 30% US Lawyers iNtuition 57% Sensing 43% Sensate v. iNtuitive
Thinking (T) ----------- Feeling (F) 3. How do you evaluate data once it's gathered?
React to new information through logical analysis: - Able to stay cool, calm, objective in situations where everyone else is upset - Prefers settling disputes on what is fair, truthful, not what makes people happy - Enjoy proving a point for its clarity, not above arguing both sides of an issue to expand intellectual horizons - More firm-minded than gentle-hearted - Pride yourself on objectivity - No problem with difficult decisions - More important to be right than to be liked - Impressed with logic, scientific evidence Remembers numbers and figures more readily than faces and names A. Thinkers (T)
React to new information through personal values - "Good decisions" take into consideration other's feelings - Tendency to overextend self to meet others' needs Able to walk in the others' shoes - "How will this affect the people involved?“ - Enjoy providing services to others, resent being taken advantage of - Prefers harmony over clarity - Sometimes accused of taking things too personally - Willing to retract statements if it has harmed others, thus - Sometimes seen as "wishy-washy" B. Feelers (F)
Thinkers v. Feelers • Thinking types need to remember that feelings are also facts that they need to consider, while feeling types need to remember that thinking types have feelings too!"
- Philosophy is predominately the realm of Thinkers who construct systems of thought based in logic; Ethics, particularly applied ethics, tends to be heavily populated by Feelers looking for effects on human beings, societies Thinkers argue based in principles; Feelers argue based in policy C. Implications for Philosophy and Law -
"The Adversarial System" favors Thinkers who relish strong arguments which many Feelers find uncomfortable, wearing Thinkers seek the intellectual challenge in law practice; Feelers seek to help people through the practice of law Thinkerspresume their logic applies to everyone; Feelers recognize personalized ways of decision making Feelers tend to take criticism personally, see Thinkers as insensitive; Thinkers take criticism as opportunity to improve, see Feelers as poor reasoners
Thinking (T) v. Feeling (F) • US Men Thinking 60% Feeling 40% • US Women Thinking 35% Feeling 65% • Male Lawyers • Thinking 81% Feeling 19% • Female Lawyers • Thinking 66% Feeling 34% • All Lawyers Thinking 78% Feeling 22%
Judging (J)------Perceiving (P) 4. How do you deal with the outside world? • What is your preference for decision making, managing life?
Prefer to live a planned, orderly life. - Experience yourself as always waiting on others who are never on time - There's a place for everything and everything must be in its place - If everyone did what they were supposed to do, the world would be a better place - Know what your day is going to include when you wake up - it's on the calendar you made months ago A. Judging (J)
- Hate surprises - Keep lists and use them - Thrive on order - alphabetized cabinets - Prefer to work things to completion and get them out of the way - Makes expeditious and final decisions, loathe to revisit them - Need for Control Judging
Prefer to live a flexible, adaptive life. - Easily distracted, get lost between front door and the car - Love to explore the unknown, take different routes home - Don't plan tasks, wait to see what develops - Last minute spurts of energy to meet others' deadlines - A neat desk is the sign of a sick mind - Tendency to change subjects abruptly in conversations B. Perceiving (P)
"Judging types can help perceiving types meet deadlines, while perceiving types can help keep judging types open to new information.“ - Hate to be pinned down on most things, avoids commitments involving calendars - Prone to see ongoing discovery preferable to making too hasty a decision, willing to revisit decisions made - Need for freedom, keeping options open Perceiving
- Both types found in Philosophy, Law - Deadlines in filing, notices, court appearances can be difficult for Perceiver lawyers often seen as disorganized by Judging peers Need for finality in decisions by courts favors Judging preference judges - Perceivers more inclined to make policy arguments, what law could/should be, how it should apply, loose construction - Judgers more inclined to argue letter of law, adherence to precedents, framer's intent, strict construction C. Implications for Philosophy and Law -
Judging (J) v. Perceiving (P) • US Population Judging 55% Perceiving 45% • US lawyers Judging 63% Perceiving 37%
The appeal to the principle of moral feeling is superficial, since men who cannot think believe they will be helped out by feeling, even when the question is one of universal laws. Immanuel Kant, Metaphysics of Morals Philosophers – INTJ
"Next to selfishness, the principle cause which makes life unsatisfactory is want of mental cultivation. John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism A cultivated mind--I do not mean that of a philosopher, but any mind to which the fountains of knowledge have been opened, and which has been taught, in any tolerable degree, to exercise its faculties--finds sources of inexhaustible interest in all that surround it: in the objects of nature, the achievements of art, the imaginations of poetry , the incidents of history, the ways of mankind, past, present, and their prospects in the future. . . The present wretched education and wretched social arrangements are the only real hindrance to its being attainable by almost all" Philosophers - INTP
Attorneys Types SENSATE INTUITIVE
More introverted than US public More iNtuitive than US public More Thinking oriented than US public (including women) More Judging than US public Attorney Composite - INTJ
Type Resisters Some people, for a variety of reasons, are very resistant to the idea of Type and to psychology in general. • Introverts, in their need for privacy, are often reluctant to reveal themselves. They may object to Typewatching, even if they believe in its virtues, simply out of fear of being" exposed." As a result, they may become closet Typewatchers-doing it, but not sharing it. • Sensors, in their quest for immediacy, can resist Typewatching because it is theoretical and abstract. Without being able to see its positive and immediate applicability, they will quickly become bored with it.
Type Resisters • Thinkers, in particular, are leery of the "soft" science of psychology. Unless you can objectively prove Type's validity and reliability, it may be brushed aside as being too "touchy-feely." • Feelers, on the other hand, can be initially resistant because "It puts people in boxes and takes away their individuality." In general, Feelers prefer not to engage in activities that have any chance of hurting others' feelings. • Perceivers, who prefer to find alternatives to everything, may be resistant if they find sixteen different personality types to be too limiting. They may ask, "Why only sixteen types?"