Stem Cells Courtney, Anne, and Rachel
What makes it a stem cell? • Capable of dividing and renewing for long periods • They are unspecialized • They give rise to specialized cells • Stem cell vs. progenitor cell?
Different types of stem cells • Stem cells are judged based on potency and behavior within the body. • What color cupcake do you have? Multipotent Pluripotent Totipotent Oligopotent Unipotent
Terms to know! • Ex vivo • cells that are developed outside of the body (in a petri dish) • In vitro • cells that are developed within the body (within the womb as an example) • Differentiated • the cells have developed so that they serve a specific purpose within the body • Dedifferentiated • the cells have not developed so they have the potential to become many things • Therapeutic cloning vs. reproductive cloning? • Both use SCNT, but therapeutic cloning is used to harvest the cells in order to have cells that match the patient’s body (analogous). Reproductive cloning is used with SCNT to make an exact living clone of the donor, such as with Dolly. • Engraftment • Successful transplantation • Autologous • From one’s own body • Allogenic • From a donor • Niche • Environment where stem cells are found; can be in bone marrow, umbilical cord, etc.
Who were the pioneers? Click to find out!
source • Either way- stem cells taken from inner cell mass which can be coaxed into any cell in the body(pluripotent) • ESCs come from inner cell mass • SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer) • Patients’ own genes • Therapeutic cloning • In Vitro fertilization • Easier • Donated
Isolation • Pipet out cells of inner cell mass (from blastocyst) • Place in petri dish so they can replicate to more ESCs • Chemicals are added to coax the cells to become whatever is needed • More specialization or work for needed treatment
Source • Somatic cells • Reprogrammed to become pluripotent • OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, and LIN28 (Thomas factors) • Have same possible potential as ESCs • Patients’ own genome • But less controllable
isolation One cell taken Most processes involve 4 genes New genes make it pluripotent and divide constantly (tumor??) Then differentiate to new cells that are needed
Source • Niche • Undifferentiated among differentiated • Lots of tissues • Each type removed differently • Bone Marrow • Hematopoietic
Amniotic Stem Cells • Comes from amniotic fluid • Can not reproduce indefinitely • Billions of cells • Does not destroy an embryo • Liver, neurons, pancreas cells (insulin), heart cells • Before or After Birth
The ethics, legislation, problems, controversy, and solutions of stem cell research
The ethics • When does life begin? • Does a five-day old blastocyst deserve the same morals as any other human being? • Possible solution in the case of unviable IVF cells
The Legislation • President Bill Clinton • President George W. Bush • President Barack Obama
The problems • Tumorogenic • Abnormalities • The unknown • The cost
The controversy • Cloning humans • Murder • Risk • Graft vs. Host Disease
The solutions • Discarded IVF from clinics • Amniotic Fluid • iPS • Adult
Holy hematopoietic!! • What’s a hematopoietic stem cell? • What are lymphocytes and erythrocytes? • Where do hematopoietic stem cells come from? • Why are hematopoietic stem cells most commonly used?
processes The only difference – where the stem cells go
process • Child vs. adult? • Chemotherapy vs. partially replacing bone marrow • Chimera of healthy and unhealthy cells • Heterozygous patient still experiences some symptoms of sickle cell
What else? • Malignancies • Hematological • Solid tumor cancers • Metabolic disorders • Environmentally-induced diseases • Viral diseases • Lysosomal storage disorders • Lipidoses (disorders of lipid storage) • Mucopolysaccharidoses • Glycoproteinoses • Immunodeficiencies • T-cell deficiencies • Combined T- and B-cell deficiencies • Well-defined syndromes • Phagocyte disorders • Immune dysregulation diseases • Innate immune deficiencies • Hematologic diseases • Cytopenias • Hemophagocytic syndromes • Phagocyte disorders • Anemias • Myeloproliferative disorders • Source: marrow.org Human hematopoietic stem cells on a elastomeric film with microcavities (left) and within a fibrilar collagen I/heparansulphate matrix (right)
Review!! What is regenerative medicine? What is therapeutic cloning?
Organ scaffolding • Decellularization • Biodegradable • Polylactic acid (lactic acid) • Polyglycolic acid (glycolic acid) • Polycaprolactone
process Cells over scaffold Sometimes blood supply needed Extra conditions Sits in chemicals to help growth
Wound repair • Burn Victims • Skin cell gun • Proteins • iPSC
Modeling diseases • Therapeutic cloning • SCNT • Disease testing with no patient harm • Predict disease behavior
Blastosock demo Alzheimer's
Diseases Diseases treated or possibly cured using stem cell techniques
Parkinson’s Disease • What is it? • What are the current treatments? • What could be the cure with stem cells in the next few years?
Replacement cell therapy • The process of putting new cells into a source in attempts to treat the disorder • Fetal Midbrain Progenitors • Embryonic Stem Cells
Severe combine immunodeficiency (scid) • What is this immunodeficiency? • Affects T-Cell Production • What is the treatment now? • Umbilical cord stem cell engraftment
Diabetes (type 1) • What is type 1 diabetes? • Autoimmune disorder affecting the production of insulin • What is the current treatment for juvenile diabetes? • Insulin injections • What is the most likely stem cell cure/treatment for diabetes in the next few years? • Islet Transplantation
Islet transplantation • Is this specifically for diabetes? • So how does transplantation work? • Has it been successful? • Yes.
Spina bifida • What is it? • Birth Defect • What stem cells work best for this and how? • Umbilical Stem Cells • Tissue Engineering
FUTURE!! • Using stem cells for face lifts • Trying to figure out if there’s a way to make all stem cells totipotent with expression of certain genes • Finding a way to retract stem cells cheaply and efficiently • Reduce risk of stem cells • Mainstream use of stem cells • Dental stem cells • Dog stem cell therapy
The future’s so bright, I gotta wear shades !!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtFXWnjVFV8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcam_SvjQIY