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Stem Cells

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Stem Cells

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  1. Stem Cells Courtney, Anne, and Rachel

  2. What makes it a stem cell? • Capable of dividing and renewing for long periods • They are unspecialized • They give rise to specialized cells • Stem cell vs. progenitor cell?

  3. Why are they called stem cells?

  4. Different types of stem cells • Stem cells are judged based on potency and behavior within the body. • What color cupcake do you have? Multipotent Pluripotent Totipotent Oligopotent Unipotent

  5. Terms to know! • Ex vivo • cells that are developed outside of the body (in a petri dish) • In vitro • cells that are developed within the body (within the womb as an example) • Differentiated • the cells have developed so that they serve a specific purpose within the body • Dedifferentiated • the cells have not developed so they have the potential to become many things • Therapeutic cloning vs. reproductive cloning? • Both use SCNT, but therapeutic cloning is used to harvest the cells in order to have cells that match the patient’s body (analogous). Reproductive cloning is used with SCNT to make an exact living clone of the donor, such as with Dolly. • Engraftment • Successful transplantation • Autologous • From one’s own body • Allogenic • From a donor • Niche • Environment where stem cells are found; can be in bone marrow, umbilical cord, etc.

  6. Who were the pioneers? Click to find out! 

  7. Isolating Stem Cells

  8. Embryonic stem cell Isolation

  9. source • Either way- stem cells taken from inner cell mass which can be coaxed into any cell in the body(pluripotent) • ESCs come from inner cell mass • SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer) • Patients’ own genes • Therapeutic cloning • In Vitro fertilization • Easier • Donated

  10. Isolation • Pipet out cells of inner cell mass (from blastocyst) • Place in petri dish so they can replicate to more ESCs • Chemicals are added to coax the cells to become whatever is needed • More specialization or work for needed treatment

  11. Induced pluripotent stem cells

  12. Source • Somatic cells • Reprogrammed to become pluripotent • OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, and LIN28 (Thomas factors) • Have same possible potential as ESCs • Patients’ own genome • But less controllable

  13. isolation One cell taken Most processes involve 4 genes New genes make it pluripotent and divide constantly (tumor??) Then differentiate to new cells that are needed

  14. Adult stem cells

  15. Source • Niche • Undifferentiated among differentiated • Lots of tissues • Each type removed differently • Bone Marrow • Hematopoietic

  16. Progenitor Cells

  17. Amniotic Stem Cells • Comes from amniotic fluid • Can not reproduce indefinitely • Billions of cells • Does not destroy an embryo • Liver, neurons, pancreas cells (insulin), heart cells • Before or After Birth

  18. The ethics, legislation, problems, controversy, and solutions of stem cell research

  19. The ethics • When does life begin? • Does a five-day old blastocyst deserve the same morals as any other human being? • Possible solution in the case of unviable IVF cells

  20. The Legislation • President Bill Clinton • President George W. Bush • President Barack Obama

  21. The problems • Tumorogenic • Abnormalities • The unknown • The cost

  22. The controversy • Cloning humans • Murder • Risk • Graft vs. Host Disease

  23. The solutions • Discarded IVF from clinics • Amniotic Fluid • iPS • Adult

  24. HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS

  25. Holy hematopoietic!! • What’s a hematopoietic stem cell? • What are lymphocytes and erythrocytes? • Where do hematopoietic stem cells come from? • Why are hematopoietic stem cells most commonly used?

  26. Hematopoietic’s multipotency

  27. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  28. processes The only difference – where the stem cells go

  29. Sickle cell anemia

  30. process • Child vs. adult? • Chemotherapy vs. partially replacing bone marrow • Chimera of healthy and unhealthy cells • Heterozygous patient still experiences some symptoms of sickle cell

  31. What else? • Malignancies • Hematological • Solid tumor cancers • Metabolic disorders • Environmentally-induced diseases • Viral diseases • Lysosomal storage disorders • Lipidoses (disorders of lipid storage) • Mucopolysaccharidoses • Glycoproteinoses • Immunodeficiencies • T-cell deficiencies • Combined T- and B-cell deficiencies • Well-defined syndromes • Phagocyte disorders • Immune dysregulation diseases • Innate immune deficiencies • Hematologic diseases • Cytopenias • Hemophagocytic syndromes • Phagocyte disorders • Anemias • Myeloproliferative disorders • Source: marrow.org Human hematopoietic stem cells on a elastomeric film with microcavities (left) and within a fibrilar collagen I/heparansulphate matrix (right)

  32. Regenerative Medicine & Therapeutic cloning

  33. Review!! What is regenerative medicine? What is therapeutic cloning?

  34. Organ scaffolding • Decellularization • Biodegradable • Polylactic acid (lactic acid) • Polyglycolic acid (glycolic acid) • Polycaprolactone

  35. process Cells over scaffold Sometimes blood supply needed Extra conditions Sits in chemicals to help growth

  36. Wound repair • Burn Victims • Skin cell gun • Proteins • iPSC

  37. Modeling diseases • Therapeutic cloning • SCNT • Disease testing with no patient harm • Predict disease behavior

  38. Blastosock demo Alzheimer's

  39. Diseases Diseases treated or possibly cured using stem cell techniques

  40. Parkinson’s Disease • What is it? • What are the current treatments? • What could be the cure with stem cells in the next few years?

  41. Replacement cell therapy • The process of putting new cells into a source in attempts to treat the disorder • Fetal Midbrain Progenitors • Embryonic Stem Cells

  42. Severe combine immunodeficiency (scid) • What is this immunodeficiency? • Affects T-Cell Production • What is the treatment now? • Umbilical cord stem cell engraftment

  43. Diabetes (type 1) • What is type 1 diabetes? • Autoimmune disorder affecting the production of insulin • What is the current treatment for juvenile diabetes? • Insulin injections • What is the most likely stem cell cure/treatment for diabetes in the next few years? • Islet Transplantation

  44. Islet transplantation • Is this specifically for diabetes? • So how does transplantation work? • Has it been successful? • Yes.

  45. Spina bifida • What is it? • Birth Defect • What stem cells work best for this and how? • Umbilical Stem Cells • Tissue Engineering

  46. Conclusion 

  47. FUTURE!! • Using stem cells for face lifts • Trying to figure out if there’s a way to make all stem cells totipotent with expression of certain genes • Finding a way to retract stem cells cheaply and efficiently • Reduce risk of stem cells • Mainstream use of stem cells • Dental stem cells • Dog stem cell therapy

  48. The future’s so bright, I gotta wear shades !!! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NtFXWnjVFV8&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcam_SvjQIY