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ECONOMICS AND POLITICS, 1830-1848. Meeting of the Thinkers’ Club (cartoon, ca. 1825) “The important question to be discussed in today’s meeting: How long will we be allowed to go on thinking?”. Censorship proved difficult to enforce: “The Reading Room” (Dresden, 1840).

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  2. Meeting of the Thinkers’ Club (cartoon, ca. 1825)“The important question to be discussed in today’s meeting:How long will we be allowed to go on thinking?”

  3. Censorship proved difficult to enforce:“The Reading Room” (Dresden, 1840)

  4. Eugene Delacroix, “Liberty Leading the People” (1830)

  5. The Hambach Festival of May 1832:“We swear to be a nation of true brothers…/ We swear to be free, as were our sires/ And sooner die than live in slavery.”

  6. The Frankfurt Uprising of April 3, 1833

  7. “Noble & priest shall oppress us no more/ Far too long have they made our backs sore….” “Open your eyes!” (ca. 1845) --French cartoon, 1789

  8. G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) published his Philosophy of Right in 1821 Karl Marx (1818-83): In Trier at age 18

  9. EVEN AFTER RENOUNCING POLITICAL LIBERALISM, THE PRUSSIAN GOVERNMENT EMBRACED ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND PUSHED THROUGH PAINFUL REFORMS: • Free choice of occupation (guilds lost the power to restrict entry into a trade) • Free choice of residence (towns lost the power to restrict poor relief to natives) • Free trade (internal tariffs should be abolished, and external tariffs lowered) • Strict enforcement of property rights in the countryside (landowners empowered to prevent poaching and “enclose” the village commons) But the state defended the lords’ “residual feudal rights,” such as the monopoly over pressing grapes, forging iron, milling grain, and brewing beer.

  10. The Zollverein formed by Prussia in 1834 Prussia’s vigorous highway building persuaded Bavaria to join, but Hanover & Hamburg did not….

  11. The Potsdam Railroad Station, 1838

  12. The beginnings of Germany’s railroad network (1840) In 1842 Prussia imposed a 33% tax on RR stock dividends over 5% to subsidize lines earning under 3.5%.

  13. The German rail network in 1847 1840: 469 km 1847: 4,306 km Price competition grew fierce wherever the RR arrived.

  14. Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850: Coal was the most important raw material in the age of steam

  15. Harkort Steam Engine Factory, Burg Wetter on the Ruhr, 1834

  16. Blast furnaces at the new Königshütte Ironworksin Prussian Silesia, ca. 1830

  17. LARGE-SCALE FACTORY INDUSTRY WAS STILL RARE:The Pre-Industrial Working Class in Prussia(as percentage of the total labor force)

  18. But handicraft trades were transformed by falling prices and new commercial practices (a cobbler’s shop, ca. 1850)

  19. King Frederick William IV of Prussia (r. 1840-59) paid more attention to medieval architecture than to economic problems.

  20. “The Seizure” (1847): Bad harvests spread hardshipamong family farmers throughout Germany in the 1840s See the graph in Blackbourn, p. 85….

  21. K. W. Hübner, “The Silesian Weavers,” 1844:Merchants reacted to falling linen prices by reducing the price paid the weaver for each bolt of cloth….

  22. The Silesian weavers revolted in 1844, sacking the homes of many merchants (a look back by Käthe Kollwitz in 1897)

  23. “Hunger and Despair”“Government Assistance”(Satirical leaflet, early 1848)

  24. Fiscal crisis induced Frederick William IV to convene Prussia’s first “United Diet” [Landtag] in April 1847

  25. The young Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels believed that Germany would now experience the “bourgeois revolution” that broke out in England in the 1640s and France in 1789

  26. “Lamartine before City Hall, 25 February 1848.”The Paris crowd now proclaimed a “Second Republic,” led by this Romantic poet and the socialist Louis Blanc.But rural voters elected a more conservative legislature in April.

  27. The spread of popular uprisings in 1848:Governments were overthrown from Paris to Bucharest Feb 22: Paris Feb 27: Baden (Offenburg Program) Mar 13: Vienna Mar 15: Budapest Mar 18: Berlin Mar 18: Milan Mar 19: Munich June 9: Bucharest

  28. J. Albrecht, “The First Victims of the Revolution: Scene Outside the Landhaus in Vienna, March 13, 1848”

  29. “A Cavalry Attack at the Municipal Armory,” March 13, 1848

  30. “The Fall of Metternich on the Evening of March 13, 1848”

  31. J.C. Schoeller, “Caricature of Metternich’s Flight,” 1848

  32. “The National Guard of the Suburb of Döbling,” Vienna, 1848

  33. Barricade fighting on the Breite Strasse in Berlin, March 18, 1848

  34. Two apprentice locksmiths defend a barricade against royal troops, Berlin, March 18, 1848

  35. Berliners celebrate on the barricades on the evening of March 18, 1848 (royal palace in background)

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