Objectives: • The students will be able to Analyze the election of 1800 as a peaceful transfer of power. • The students will be able to explain how Jefferson deviated from his philosophical beliefs upon becoming president and how his actions resulted in a stronger executive branch.
Objectives • The students will be able to summarize the importance of the Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark expeditions.
Jefferson Wins the Presidential Election of 1800 • The government was only 12 years old when this peaceful transfer of power took place. Federalist – Republicans • Jefferson received the same number of electoral votes as his running mate Aaron Burr. Hamilton stepped in. He persuaded enough members in the House that were Federalist to vote for Jefferson.
Peaceful Transfer of Power • This change in political power from one party to another showed the world that the American republic could withstand political change.
Simplifying the Presidency • Jefferson believed that a simple government suited the needs of the republic. • As president, he wore plain cloths to work. This shows the common person that they could relate to him. • He tried to cut government costs. He reduced the size of the military. He lowered the expenses for government functions.
Southern Dominance of Politics • Jefferson was the 1st president to take over the office in Washington. • Southern dominance underscored the declining influence of both New England and the Federalists in national political life. • Federalist did not participate in political campaigns because they did not want to appeal to the common people for support.
The Federalist Lose Power • National expansion worked against the Federalists because settlers in the new states tended to vote for Republicans, who represented farmers’ interest. • By 1803, the government was more evenly balanced between Republicans and Federalists.
The Judiciary Act of 1801 • President Adams pushed for an increase in the number of federal judges by sixteen. • Adams filled most of these positions with Federalists. • Midnight Judges – Adams signed these appointments late on the last night that he was in office. • Adams also appointed John Marshall to head the Supreme Court.
Jefferson Angered • Jefferson was angered that Adams would appoint all of these Federalist to positions in the courts. • This still allowed the Federalist some control of the affairs of the nation. • Marbury V. Madison – deals with the last minute appointees. Judicial Review is established during this case.
The United States Expands West • Between 1800 and 1810, the population of Ohio grew from 45,000 – 231,000 with similar rates in Kentucky, Tennessee, and adjoining territories.
The Louisiana Purchase • Jefferson had an opportunity to extend American territory. • In 1800, Napoleon Bonaparte of France persuaded Spain to return the Louisiana Territory, which it had received from France. • The French presence concerned Jefferson. He believed this might force the U.S. into an alliance with Britain.
Jefferson Buys the Land • Napoleon gives up his vision of an empire in America. • In 1803, he offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory to the U.S. • Monroe and Livingston closed the deal for 15 million.
Jefferson Questions the Constitutionality of the Purchase • Strict Constructionist? Jefferson questions the Constitutionality of the purchase. • Louisiana Purchase included all of the land drained tributaries of the Mississippi River, the size of the U.S. more than doubled. • Jefferson who wanted to simplify the government instead expanded the powers of government.
Lewis and Clark • Jefferson was eager to explore the new territory. • He appointed Meriwether Lewis to lead the expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific coast. • Lewis chose William Clark to be his second in command. • They started off with 50 or so soldiers and woodsmen. • On the way, they picked up a Native American women, Sacajawea. She served as an interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark.
Results of the Expedition • Lewis and Clark brought back invaluable information and showed that transcontinental travel was possible. • It also opened the way for settlement to the West and strengthened American claims to the Oregon Territories. • The LA Purchase contributed to the success of Jefferson’s first term of office, but trouble with Britain was on the horizon.