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  1. CHAPTER 2 European Footholds on the Fringes of North America 1600–1660 CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ

  2. . . .laws “most meet and convenient for the general good.” The Mayflower Compact, a “Civil Body Politic”

  3. TIMELINE 1601 Drought 1602 Dutch East India Company founded Champlain devotes himself to exploring the St. Lawrence River region 1603 Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I takes crown 1605 Oñate and his new “Mexico” province 1606 Virginia Company chartered 1607 Jamestown founded 1608 Champlain establish Quebec 1610 Capital of New Mexico created at Sante Fe John Rolfe comes to Jamestown 1611 John Rolfe begins planting Orinoco tobacco King James version of Bible published

  4. TIMELINE 1612 Francisco de Pareja publishes bilingual confessional 1613 Bermuda becomes a tobacco colony 1614 John Rolfe marries Pocahontas 1620 The Mayflower arrives in Cape Cod 1621 Dutch West India Company controls New Netherland 1622 Opechancanough attacks English at James River 1625 Charles I inherits English crown 1627 Cardinal Richelieu presses for new French settlements in Canada 1629 The Massachusetts Bay Company founded 1630 New Amsterdam’s population is 270 1633 Disease kills 10,000 Iroquois in 5 years 1632 Dutch seize Brazil 1634 Dutch seize Curaçao, Venezuela Calvert founds Maryland

  5. TIMELINE 1635 Jesuits establish a college in Quebec 1637 Pequot War 1641 Dutch take Malacca from Portuguese 1642 Dutch in Tasmania and New Zealand 1643 Dutch at the northern coast of Japan 1644 Rhode Island granted a charter 1647 Indians stage revolt in Apalachee 1649 Hurons attacked by Dutch traders Charles I beheaded Act Concerning Religion 1652 Dutch establish colony at Cape Town 1656 Indian uprising in Timucua, north central Florida

  6. TIMELINE English control: Barbardos, Providence Island, Antigua, Jamaica Dutch control: St. Maarten, St. Eustacius, Saba, Curaçao French control: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Grenada, St. Lucia

  7. EUROPEAN FOOTHOLDS Overview • Spain’s Ocean-Spanning Reach • France and Holland • English Beginnings • The Puritan Experiment • Chesapeake Bay Colonies

  8. SPAIN’S OCEAN-SPANNING REACH • Vizcaíno in California and Japan • Oñate Creates a Spanish Foothold in the Southwest • New Mexico Survives: New Flocks Among Old Pueblos • Conversion and Rebellion in Spanish Florida

  9. The Spanish Southwest in the early 16th Century

  10. Vizcaíno in California and Japan • April 1607 Vizcaíno given charge of creating outpost for Spain in Monterey Bay • Vizcaíno goes in search of fabled cities and lands in Japan. He brings back Japanese delegates. Due to the Japanese fear of being Christianized, the relationship never developed fully. • Vizcaíno venture to Japan spent the funds meant for Monterey Bay, as well as the daunting cliffs of the west coast which discouraged landing on mainland. The Spanish reconsidered overexpanding their reach.

  11. Oñate Creates a Spanish Foothold in the Southwest • 1598 Oñate established a province in New Mexico • Difficulties: drought, embittered Indians, harsh conditions. Settlers abandon the settlement and return to Mexico • Oñate goes west to look for Pacific. In 1605 he mistakes the Gulf of California for the ocean. Food in short supply. • In 1608 Spain’s threats to withdraw are countered with Franciscan’s appeal for the converts they had found. Many Indians looking for food and protection had converted to Christianity. New Mexico is allowed to remain a Spanish colony.

  12. New Mexico Survives: New Flocks Among Old Pueblos • 1610 capital of Sante Fe established • 1630 46 Franciscan friars with missions in 35 pueblos • Spanish brought new crops, and livestock to the Pueblos, but also disease. Pueblos population more than halved by 1680.

  13. Conversion and Rebellion in Spanish Florida • 1608: Spain decides to continue colony in Florida to amass more converts. • Franciscans focus on literacy and publish bilingual confessional: Castilian and Timucuan, the native language. • Smallpox claims more victims of Native Americans, than Franciscans’ claim converts. • 1647: Indians at Apalachee revolt. Spain reacts and 12 rebel leaders executed. • 1656: Indian uprising in north central Florida takes Spanish months to subdue.

  14. FRANCE AND HOLLAND: OVERSEAS COMPETITION FOR SPAIN • The Founding of New France • Competing for the Beaver Trade • A Dutch Colony on the Hudson River • “All Sorts of Nationalities”: Diverse New Amsterdam

  15. The Founding of New France • The beaver hat helps expand trading with Canada • The religious strife ends in France with the Henry IV’s Edict of Nantes, allowing more focus for exploration. • Champlain: explores the St. Lawrence Region from 1602 to 1635. • In 1608 Quebec is established as an outpost for France. • 1609: Champlain builds coalition with the Algonquin and Huron Indians against the Iroquois. This relationship benefits both French and Indians. • 1627: Cardinal Richelieu tries to build Roman Catholic settlements in Canada. English privateers stymie his plans and take Quebec for several years. After French retain control of Quebec, Richelieu offers French Catholic lords strips of land.

  16. Competing for the Beaver Trade • The Mourning Wars/The Beavers • The Iroquois battle the French and Hurons; trading fur with the Dutch for more arms. • Jesuits establish base at St. Marie with Hurons, but disease claims much of the population. • Iroquois attack Hurons and Jesuits in March 1649. • Iroquois then turn attention to St. Lawrence valley, and New France’s survival is threatened.

  17. A Dutch Colony on the Hudson River • 1621: The Dutch West Indies Company claims New Netherland • Peter Minuit purchases Manhattan Island from local Indians to consolidate the Dutch settlement and granting land to patroons along the Hudson River

  18. “All Sorts of Nationalities”: Diverse New Amsterdam • Peter Stuyvesant rules New Netherland until 1664. • Stuyvesant tries to stifle Quakers, but Flushing Long Island makes stand: “Whether Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist or Quaker, let every man stand and fall to his own.” • Diverse New Amsterdam: • African slaves, half-free, and some free. Jewish community. Huguenots, Swedes, Finns, English.

  19. European and Native American Contact in the Northeast

  20. ENGLISH BEGINNINGS ON THE ATLANTIC COAST • The Virginia Company and Jamestown • “Starving Time” and Seeds of Representative Government • Launching the Plymouth Colony

  21. The Virginia Company and Jamestown • 1599: “Great and ample” Virginia. The English claimed from current Vermont to Carolina’s Outer Banks. • 1606: James I charters the Virginia Company. • London merchants to colonize Chesapeake Bay region. • Jamestown • 1607: 105 English men arrive to find 13,000 Powhatans. • The first winter, with harsh conditions, kill half of the settlers • John Smith governs briefly • Shares sold: 100 acres when investment matured in 1616. • West Country English to colonize the northern area of the coast • The failed Sagadahoc settlement

  22. “Starving Time” and Seeds of Representative Government • 1609: 500 settlers (men and women) arrive in Chesapeake. By 1610, only 60 remain after the “starving time.” • An infusion of new settlers convinces the remaining 60 to try again. • John Rolfe plants Orinoco tobacco in 1611, and by 1612 the production began to soar. • The Virginia Company promises transportation and 50 acres to tenants, with ownership after 7 years. • Established English freedoms: trail by jury, representative government, civil courts with English common law, elected burgesses

  23. Launching the Plymouth Colony • The Virginia Company awards patents to private groups to “build a town and settle. . .” • September, 1620, English Separatists from Dutch city of Leiden embark on the Mayflower • November they disembark around Cape Cod and begin to establish the Plymouth Plantation • Although confronted with hardships, they maintain peaceful relations with the Massasoit Indians and enjoy a thanksgiving feast together.

  24. THE PURITAN EXPERIMENT • Formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company • “We Shall Be As a City Upon a Hill” • Dissenters: Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson • Expansion and Violence: The Pequot War

  25. Formation of the Massachusetts Bay Company • 1626: Law that prohibits preaching or writing on controversial religious topics is introduced and aimed at the Puritan movement • The marriage of Charles I to a Catholic and the persecution at the hand of the Archbishop of Canterbury spurs the Puritans along with some entrepreneurs to obtain a chapter and form the Massachusetts Bay Company.

  26. “We Shall Be As a City Upon a Hill” • The Arbella and 17 other ships in 1630 brings John Winthrop and 1000 English people to New England. • Winthrops’ “A Model of Christian Charity” lays out the values that will enable the Puritans to set an example for the rest of the world to follow. • Boston is established and Winthrop chosen as Governor • The influx of English to the New World: • 1634: 4000 English come to New World • 1642: 20,000 English come to New World • English outposts in Hartford and Springfield

  27. Dissenters: Roger Williams • A Separatist in Boston, Williams believed: • In separation of church and state to protect the church. • Land patents from the king had no validity. • Settlers should purchase land from Native Americans. • Williams is banished, and builds a refuge for dissenters he calls Providence. • He is granted a charter in 1644 for his colony, Rhode Island.

  28. Dissenters: Anne Hutchinson • Hutchinson is prompted by her “divine revelation to follow her minister, John Cotton, to New England. • In Boston, Hutchinson holds weekly religious discussion meetings. She stresses direct communication with God as the avenue to personal forgiveness. • Labeled an Antinomian (“against law”), the movement grows and they displace Winthrop from the governorship in 1636. • The Puritans establish Harvard College to educate ministers, and eventually tried Hutchinson and banished her. • In exile Hutchinson moves to Rhode Island and then to a settlement along the Hudson. She and her family are killed by Indians in 1643.

  29. Expansion and Violence: The Pequot War • The Puritans expand into New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut displacing and crowding the Native American population. • English recruit the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes to wage war against the Pequots. • 400 Pequots massacred at Mystic, CT. • The following years, Native Americans negotiate away land and are “saved” by the English Protestants.

  30. THE CHESAPEAKE BAY COLONIES The Demise of the Virginia Company Maryland: The Catholic Refuge The Dwellings of English Newcomers The Lure of Tobacco

  31. The Demise of the Virginia Company • Opechancanough leads the Pamunkey tribe in an assault on a beleaguered Jamestown March, 1622. 350 settlers are lost. • The conflict leads to 10 years of war • 1624: King James annuls the Virginia Company’s charter • 1646: Opechancanough captured and shot • Pamunkeys and Powhatans submit to English and pay a yearly fee to live on their land. • 1660: 25,000 colonists live hear Chesapeake Bay

  32. Maryland: The Catholic Refuge • Calvert settles Maryland with a grant from Charles I for 10 million acres. • Both Catholic and Protestants. 1649, Maryland’s assembly passes an Act Concerning Religion guaranteeing toleration for all who believed in Jesus Christ. • 1650, Puritans take control and repeal the act, but by 1660, the Stuart monarchy brings back proprietary rule.

  33. The Dwellings of English Newcomers • New England • Long winters demand warm housing • More interior space • Stone chimney and central fireplace • Cellars • Thick walls • Two story houses • Linked storage rooms and animal sheds

  34. The Dwellings of English Newcomers • Chesapeake • Less solid and substantial than New England houses • One story houses • Simple wooden frame on posts (mortise-and-tenon joints) • Dirt or plank floor • Few glass windows, rather oiled paper or wooden shutters • Chimneys of sticks and vines with clay daubing--outside • Additional space separate from living space

  35. The Lure of Tobacco • After experimenting with other crops, Chesapeake residents hit on tobacco. • Virginia’s annual tobacco exports • 2,000 lbs in 1615 • 20,000 lbs in 1617 • 40,000 lbs in 1620 • By 1640, 1.4 million pounds of tobacco annually