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Rice PowerPoint Presentation

Rice

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Rice

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  1. Rice CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  2. Grains • Aka, Cereals, or Cereal Grains • Mostly Wheat, Barley, Rye, Maize (Corn), & Rice CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  3. Cooking Rice and Other Grains • Absorption Method • Aka steamed or simmered • Oven Method • Absorption Method for larger Quantities • Add boiling liquid to rice, cover • Pasta Method • Boiled and Strained • Pilaf Method • Risotto Method CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  4. Perfectly Cooked Rice CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  5. Pilaf Method • Sweat Aromatics (shallots, spices, etc.) in a little fat. • Saute Grain • Add hot liquid (water, stock, etc) to grain, stir, season, and bring to a simmer • Cover (DO NOT STIR) and finish on low heat • Fluff Grain and Serve CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  6. Risotto Method • Same as Pilaf EXCEPT • Add Liquid in stages (often beginning with a little wine) • Cook uncovered and stir occasionally adding additional hot liquid as needed • Finish with butter and/or grated cheese • Served warm and creamy CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  7. Rice • Second only to Corn in worldwide production • Most important staple grain to humans • Provides 20-50% of needed calories to people worldwide (Most corn is grown for animal fed) • Labor intensive to cultivate • Needs abundant water sources CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  8. Rice, Con’t. • Two Main Cultivars, “Indica” & “Japonica” • “Indica" produces long-grain rice and is grown in tropical areas such as South-East Asia • Short-grained "japonica" is cultivated in temperate areas including Japan and northern China • Wild rice is an entirely different and is harvested from wild plants in North America. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  9. Rice, Con’t. • All rice starts out as brown rice. • White rice, the fibrous bran layer and underlying germ are milled off—along with nutrients and natural oils • Less nutritious • more shelf-stable than the brown stuff. • Long grain, medium grain, and short grains CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  10. Rice, Texture • Fluffy, sticky, or in between. • Texture of cooked rice depends on the ratio of two starch molecules: amylose and amylopectin. • High-amylose rices (longer Grains) cook up firm, fluffy, and distinct; high-amylopectin (Short Grains) rices come out tender and sticky and require more water (and cooking time) than the latter. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  11. Short/Medium-Grain Rice Long-Grain vs. Short-Grain Rice Long-Grain Rice For Most Savory Dishes Dry, Separate Grains In India, the aromatic basmati rice is very popular; the word basmati means fragrant. creamy when cooked used in milk puddings and risottos Japan and Korea, glutinous “sticky” rice is preferred because it is sticky when cooked and is easier to eat with chop-sticks. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  12. White Rice • Milled rice with Husk, Bran, & Germ Removed. • Prevents spoilage & Extends Storage life • After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  13. White Rice, Con’t. • Polishing removes important nutrients. • A diet based on un-enriched white rice leaves people vulnerable to the neurological disease beriberi, due to a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1). • Enrichment of white rice with B1, B3, and iron is required by law in the United States. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  14. Brown Rice • Un-milled or Partly Milled Rice • Mild nutty Flavor, Chewier • Superior Nutrition (Compared to White) • Fiber • B Vitamins • Becomes Rancid More Quickly CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  15. Parboiled Rice • Rice cooked in the husk • Improved Nutrition, 80% similar to Brown Rice • Less Time to Cook • Firmer and Less Sticky CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  16. Converted or Minute Rice • Precooked and Dehydrated • Cooks Quicker • More Expensive • Less Nutrition, Less Flavor CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  17. Jasmine Rice • “Thai Fragrant Rice” • long-grain& Nutty Aroma • Grains will cling when cooked, though it is less sticky than other rices (less amylopectin) CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  18. Basmati Rice • Very Fragrant • “Pandan Leaf” Aroma • Longer Grains • Free-Flowing, less Sticky) • India and Pakistan CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  19. Forbidden Black Rice • short-grained, heirloom rice • Purple when Raw • Dark purple cooked CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  20. Spanish Rice • Granza &Valencia • Medium-Grain • Used for Spanish Paella and “Arroc Con Pollo” CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  21. Arborio, Carnaroli and Vialone Nano • Considered the Best Rices for Risotto • High-starch (amylopectin), low-amylose round medium grain • “Superfino”, Semifino” and “Fino” refer to the size and shape (narrowness) of the grains, not the quality. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  22. Risotto • Rich and creamy • “Al dente”, and with separate grains • Italian CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  23. Rice Pilaf • Light and Fluffy • “Al dente”, and with separate grains • Indian and Middle Eastern Cuisines CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  24. Webquest • http://www.foodsubs.com/Rice.html CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  25. Corn or Maize CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  26. Corn • Eaten Fresh as a Vegetable • Eaten Dried as A Grain • Cornmeal • Flour • Eaten indirectly in products such as Corn Syrup, Corn Starch, etc • Dent Corn vs. Sweet Corn CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  27. Cornmeal • Dried Corn milled Course to Fine • Maybe Yellow, White or Blue • Sometimes Known as “Corn Flour” • “Stone-ground” Retains some of bran and germ • Polenta, aka “Cornmeal Mush” is a course grind of cornmeal CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  28. Polenta • Polenta is Northern Italian in Origin • Served as Porridge or as a Cake CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  29. Nixtamalization • Corn Kernals are soaked in wood ash or slaked calcium hydroxide (an alkali) • Softens Outer skin • Increases Protein by Releasing Bound Niacin • Acts as a Preservative • “Nixtamal” aka Hominy • Pellagra CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  30. Grits • Madefrom nixtamalized corn, or hominy. • Southern US • Served as a porridge, with butter and sometimes sugar • Grated Cheese may also be added CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  31. Masa Harina • Flour Made from Finely Ground Hominy • Used for Tortillas and Flat Breads CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  32. Wheat CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  33. Wheat • Third most-produced cereal after maize • Mostly used for flour for baked goods • By-products-bulgur, cracked wheat, & couscous used as side dishes…and beer. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  34. Wheat • Winter and Spring Varieties • High & Low Protein Varieties • Durham Wheat • Hard Winter wheat used for making semolina flour…pasta • 1 in every 100 - 200 people has Celiac disease-Wheat Gluten Allergy CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  35. Cracked Wheat • Or “Wheat Berries” • Bran & Germ Intact • Must Be Soaked before Cooking • Used also for Sprouting CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  36. Bulgur • Bran Removed, Par cooked & Dried • Turkish Cuisine • Used in Pilafs, Soups and Baked Goods • More Nutritional Substitute for Rice and Couscous CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  37. Couscous • Moroccan Cuisine • Bran and Germ Removed from Durham Wheat Berries • Similar to Pasta • Steamed or use a “Couscousiére” CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  38. Couscous CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  39. Vegetables • Any herbaceous plant that can be eaten in part or in whole. • i.e. leaves, stems, roots, tubers, seeds and flowers • Usually Cooked CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  40. Baby Vegetables • Regular varieties picked before maturity • Also includes, heirloom, hybrids & miniature varieties • Bruise easily and highly perishable • Highly valued for taste and tenderness. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  41. Vegetable Nutrition • Most are 80%+ water (water soluble Vitamins) • Carbohydrates (Starches) and small amounts of protein & fat • Fiber, cellulose and lignin. • To peel or not to peel. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  42. USDA Organic • “100% Organic=no added hormones, pesticides, synthetic pesticides, etc. • Soil must be free of synthetics for 3 years. • “Organic” = 95% organic ingredients by weight • “Made with organic ingredients”=70=90% • <70% not labeled as organic CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  43. Vegetable Grading • Voluntary based on appearance, and conditions affecting waste or eating quality. • U.S. Extra Fancy, U.s. Fancy, U.S. Extra No.1, U.s. No.1 • Potatoes, carrots & onions and mandatory consumer (retail) grades…”Grade A, etc. CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  44. Fresh Vegetable Storing • Most Fresh vegetables at 40˚F to 60 ˚F • Winter Squash, Potatoes, Onions, Shallots & Garlic at room temperature in a dry area with good ventilation. • Other vegetables like greens, may be stored in cold storage between 34 ˚F and 40 ˚F • Store Apples, Peaches Tomatoes, Bananas & melons away from others due to emission of ethylene gas CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  45. Preserved Vegetables • Irradiated • Store like Fresh • Avoids the Use of harvest pesticides • Kills Bacteria, Bugs, etc • Slows ripening and sprouting • Canned • Frozen • “IQF” • Expensive Freezer Space • Dried CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  46. Vegetable Pigments Pigment Chlorophyll Carotenoid Flavonoid (White) Flavonoid (Red) Spinach & Broccoli Carrots & Rutabagas Cauliflower Red Cabbage CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  47. Acid/Alkali Reactions • Texture • Acids Toughen , Lengthen Cooking Time • Alkali Softens, (often “Mushy) AND causes nutrient loss (thiamin) and may impart bitterness • Color • Acids destroy chlorophyll, have no effect on carotenoids and brighten flavonoids • Alkali brightens chlorophyll, has no effect on carotenoids and makes white flavonoids-yellow and red flavonoids -blue CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  48. Cooking Vegetables • Cut to uniform shape and Size • Cook Short Time to Preserve Nutrients, Color & texture • Cook Close to Service Time. Don’t hold hot • Blanch in advance and hold in ice water • White and Red Vegetable MAY be cooked with SMALL amount of acid for color retention • Cook assorted Vegetable Separately • Check Doneness…Al Dente and Bright Color CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  49. Starches • Potatoes, Grains and Pastas • Some are Vegetables, Some are Grasses • Staples of a Cuisine, i.e. Can be Stored • Define the Cuisine • Generally, Inexpensive • High in Carbohydrates, Low in in Fat CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics

  50. Fruit-Vegetables CHRM 1110 Vegetable, Starch & Protein Basics