IB Music Unit 1 Music Elements
What Is Music? • How do you define music so that it can incorporate all types of Music. • Examples: • Classical Music • Romantic Music • 20th century Music • Music From other cultures • Popular Styles • Jazz
What is Music? • Does music need to have a melody? • Does Music need to have rhythm? • Does Music need to have chords? • Does Music need to have an organized sound system? • Does music need to be pleasing to everybody’s ears? • Does music need to have pitch?
What is Music? • If I drop something on the ground, is it music? • 2:24 Music? • Your Ideas!
What is Music? • My definition: (thus your definition). • Music is soundthat is organizedwith the intent to be music. • This definition includes all types of music that we will come across. • The main concept is to have an open mind: to go outside of our limited music appreciation box.
Elements of a Musical Sound • These elements are inherent in all musical sounds. • Pitch: the highness / lowness of a musical sound.
Elements of a Musical Sound. • Dynamic:volume, loudness, softness
Elements of a musical sound. • Tone Color or Timbre (tam’- ber): • The individual characteristics of a sound that makes it identifiable as that sound. • Example: Trumpet Timbre has characteristics that make it sound like a trumpet
IB Music Elements: Medium • Medium means instrumentation. • Woodwinds: sound is created by vibrating piece of wood, normally a reed, but sometimes it can be the instrument itself being wood. Flutes use to be made of wood.
Woodwinds: Flute Family: Piccolo C Flute C Alto Flute Eb
Woodwinds: Double Reeds Oboe C English Horn Eb Oboe d’amore Eb Bassoon C Contra Bassoon C Modern orchestral oboes include (left to right) the standard oboe; the larger English horn, or cor anglais; and the oboe d'amore. A double-reed instrument invented in the 17th century, the oboe is valued for its plaintive, nasal tone quality. The English horn, an alto oboe, was originally curved and did not attain its present shape until the 19th century. The oboe d'amore is frequently used in music by J. S. Bach. (Grolier Interactive Inc.)
Woodwinds Clarinet Family Eb Clarinet Eb Bb Clarinet Bb A Clarinet A Alto Clarinet Eb Bass Clarinet Bb Contra Alto Cl. Eb Contra Bass Cl. Bb
Woodwinds Saxophones: Soprano Bb Alto Eb Tenor Bb Baritone Eb Bass Bb
Brass Instruments • Brass Instruments have 3 parts: • 1. a cupped mouth piece • 2. a long tube • 3. a fairing bell
Brass Instruments All brass instruments play off the overtone series . The overtone series is created by sound waves that overlap. A single wave creates a fundamental pitch. Within the wave, overtones are created at twice the speed of the fundamental wave speed.
Brass Instruments The actual sound would look like this. By pressing the damper peddle of a piano and holding down an overtone in the high register, you will hear the overtone ring when you release the peddle.
Brass Instruments Overtone Series on the trumpet open position. By playing the 2nd valve all the notes are a ½ step down on the B overtone series. b
Brass Instruments Natural Trumpet: Has the above elements Plays on the overtone series. Baroque Trumpet Notes are high on the series, so the intervals are close. Uses Crooks to change pitch.
Brass Instruments Trombones use a slide to change the length of the instruments tubing. When the length of the tubing is changed, the fundamental is lowered and the player can play different notes. However, the trombone is the only early brass instrument that could play all 12 notes of the chromatic scale. The seven positions relate to the seven combinations of valve combinations.
Brass Instruments: • Valves are added to change overtone series. • When the valve is pressed down, it forces the airstream threw more valves. • First attempts are with keyed valves.
Brass Instruments Trumpet Family Piccolo Trumpet Bb,A Bb Trumpet C Trumpet Eb / D Trumpet Cornet Flugal Horn Cylindrical Bore: The bore is even through out the instrument. Creates a bright edgy sound. Conical Bore: The boar gradually gets wider, creating a mellow warm tone.
Brass Instruments French Horn: F Has the longest tubing. Plays very high on the overtone series, creating notes that are close to each other. Can play a full scale on one position. Double French Horn: Bb Side and F side Stop Horn Place hand in bell to creat a muted sound. Lowers pitch ½ step, requiring transposition.
Brass Instruments: Valve Trombone Low Brass Tenor Trombone C Bass Trombone F Trigers Euphonium /Baritone Bass Clef C Treble Clef Bb Tuba C
Percussion • Percussion instruments create sound by striking something. • Often with a stick or mallet, but not always. • Definite Pitched Percussion: holds a defined pitch. • Timpani, Xylophone, Marimba, Bells etc. • Indefinite Pitched Percussion: do not hold a definable pitch, but may have a general high or low.
Tympani Percussion: Definite Pitched Instruments Chimes Glockenspiel, Bells, Orchestra Bells Celesta Marimba: look at classroom examples
Percussion: Membranophones Membranophones: The sound generator is a stretched skin or membrane. Pg. 576 Concert Toms Snare Drum Bass Drum Tympani
Percussion: Idiophones Idiophones:the sound generator is it’s own material, no tension is applied. Pg. 576 Gong or Tam Tam Cowbell and all bells Claves Sleigh Bells and all shakers Finger Cymbals and all cymbals Vibes (also Marimba, bells etc. Wood Block Ratchet
String Instruments: • A vibrating string creates the sound. • Orchestra Strings: • Violin • Cello • Viola • Double Bass or Bass Viola Violin Double Bass Cello
String Instruments Guitar Harp Many Varieties of string instruments from world cultures. An African String Instrument
Vocal Ranges: • Soprano High Female Voice • Alto Low Female Voice • Tenor High Male Voice • Bass Low Male Voice • Baritone Middle Male Voice • Combinations • SATB • SAB • SSA • TTBB • Children's Chorus
Medium Review Questions • 1) What instrument family is Flute in. • A) Woodwind • B) String • C) Brass • D) Percussion
Medium Review Questions • 2) What instrument family is Vibes in. • A) Woodwind • B) String • C) Brass • D) Percussion
Medium Review Questions • 3) What instrument family is Piano in. • A) Woodwind • B) String • C) Brass • D) Percussion
Medium Review Questions • 4) What instrument family is Saxophone in. • A) Woodwind • B) String • C) Brass • D) Percussion
Medium Review Question • 5) What instrument family is Viola in. • A) Woodwind • B) String • C) Brass • D) Percussion
Medium Review Questions • 6) Which instrument family creates sound by vibrating air through a cupped mouthpiece. • A) Woodwind • B) String • C) Brass • D) Percussion
Medium Review Questions • 7) _______________ have a sound generator that is it’s own material . • (use your clicker to enter the text of the correct answer by pushing “T” then use the arrow keys to select the correct letter. Then push “T” again to enter the second letter. • (Chordophone, Aerophones, Membranophones, or Idiophones)
Medium Review Questions • 8) The Alto Flute is pitched in which key. • A) C • B) Bb • C) Eb • D F
Medium Review Question • 9) The French Horn is pitched in which key. • A) C • B) Bb • C) Eb • D F
Medium Review Question • 10) Which of the following is not a common instrumentation for a vocal ensemble. • A) SATB • B) SABT • C)SAB • D) SAA
Melody • The song of the song. • A series of tones that add up to a recognizable whole. • Contains: • Steps (moves scale degree to scale degree) • Skips (skips some scale degrees, but close together) • Leaps (skips more scale notes, not close together)
Melody: • Repetition: (repeating a melodic section) • Contrast:(a different melodic section) • Variation: (different melodic material) • Phrase: (a musical sentence) • Cadence:(a musical period, chords that signify the end of a phrase) • Motif: (a short melodic clip that is used throughout a melody) • Climax: (the peak of a melodic line)
Melody: • Sequence: (The repetition of a motif or phrase at a descending or ascending interval) • Theme: (A melody that is used as the basis for a longer piece (movement) that is undergoes development) • Melodic Development: When a composer takes a theme and changes it through a sequence of musical events. In essence he musically plays with the melody.)
Harmony: • The way chords are structured and how they follow each other. • The harmony supports the melody. Harmony is selected from the melody notes. • Harmonic Progression: a series of chords. • Consonance: the relative lack of stress in a chord, stable. • Dissonance: the relative amount of stress in a chord, unstable.
Harmony: • Triad: The basic chord: 1,3, and 5 of any major or minor scale: • Key Center: Establishment of a note that is treated as the home note. The harmony and melody are at rest on the tonic note or chord. • Tonic Chord: The one chord of a major or minor key. • Dominant Chord: The major five chord of a major /minor key.