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Animal Anatomy and Physiology
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Animal Anatomy and Physiology

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  1. Animal Anatomy and Physiology Mr. Pace

  2. Animal Anatomy and Physiology At the completion of this unit, students will be able to: Describe the organs, function, and common diseases associated with the skeletal and muscular systems Describe the organs, function, and common diseases in the respiratory system Describe the organs, function, and common associated diseases in the digestive system Describe the organs, function, and common associated diseases in the circulatory system Describe the organs, function, and common diseases associated with the endocrine and excretory system Describe the organs, function, and common diseases associated with the integumentary and nervous system Describe the organs, function, and common diseases associated with the immune and reproductive systems.

  3. What’s Anatomy and Physiology?? • Anatomy: • Structure of a plant or an animal • Physiology: • Functions of living organisms and their parts. You must know what “normal” Functioning is to recognize the abnormal

  4. Skeletal System • Purpose • Provide Structure and Function to the body • Made up of: • Bones • Cartilage • Connective Tissue (tendons and ligaments)

  5. Skeletal System • Axial Skeleton • Head • Spinal Column • Ribs • Appendicular Skeleton • Limbs

  6. Skeletal System • Short Bone – cube shaped, found by joints and give flexibility • i.e. carpus and tarsus • Flat Bone – plate of bone, usually protect vital organs • i.e. scapula, rib, skull • Irregular Bone – complex shaped • i.e. Vertebrae • Sesamoid – small, seed – shaped bone • i.e. proximal and distal sesamoids, patella • Long Bone – bone is longer than it is wide • i.e. femur, tibia, humerus, etc

  7. Skeletal System

  8. Skeletal System Bone Anatomy Medullary cavity Endosteum Bone marrow

  9. Skeletal System Problems Fractures

  10. Skeletal System Problems Fractures • Cause: Injury • Symptoms: lameness, malformation of limb • Cure: • Low (er) cost = Splints & Casts • High cost = Surgery

  11. Skeletal System Problems Fractures

  12. Skeletal System Problems Fracture Repair

  13. Skeletal System Problems Hip Dysplasia • Cause: Genetic, Large breed dogs most prone • Symptoms: Lameness, as young as 6-12 months old, reluctant to rise or jump • Cure: • Low(er) cost = Arthritis medication to control pain • High Cost = Surgery

  14. Skeletal System Problems Hip Dysplasia Normal Hip Young dog with early signs of hip dysplasia Older dog with severe hip dysplasia

  15. Skeletal System Problems Osteosarcoma • Cause: Unknown, but giant breeds are extra prone • Symptoms: Lameness, abnormal shape to affected area (bone tumor) • Cure: • Amputation, chemotherapy • No good cure

  16. Skeletal System Problems Osteosarcoma

  17. Skeletal System Problems Cruciate Ligament Tear • Cause: Injury • Symptoms: Lameness • Cure: • Surgery • AKA: ACL Repair (in humans)

  18. Skeletal System Problems Cruciate Ligament Tear http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9jg9E2nBt_E http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nU2QZjjByg

  19. Skeletal System Problems Arthritis • Cause: Age (previous injuries increase chances of arthritis significantly) • Symptoms: Lameness, difficulty getting up and down • Cure: • Anti inflammatory meds

  20. Muscular System • Purpose: • Move the Skeleton • Proper Organ Function • Meat • Made up of: • Skeletal Muscle: Movement • Cardiac Muscle: Heart • Smooth Muscle: Organs

  21. Muscular System • Classifications of Muscle: • Voluntary: Movement is made by choice • Involuntary: Movement happens automatically

  22. Muscular System Muscle Movement:

  23. Muscular System LatissimusDorsi Masseter External abdominal oblique Brachiocephalicus Trapezius Gluteals Pectorals Semitendinous Gastrocnemius Deltoid Intercostal Triceps brachi Biceps femoris

  24. Muscular System Problems Sprains • Cause: Injury • Symptoms: Lameness • Cure: • Rest • Anti inflammatory meds

  25. Respiratory System • Purpose: • Provide Oxygen to blood • Expel Carbon Dioxide • Regulates Temperature………?? • Dogs and cats pant to cool down because they can’t sweat • Made up of: • Nasal Cavity • Trachea • Lungs, Bronchi, Bronchioles • Alveoli

  26. Respiratory System

  27. Respiratory System Upper Respiratory System

  28. Respiratory System Lower Respiratory System

  29. Respiratory System Problems Upper Respiratory Infection • Cause: Bacteria or Virus • Symptoms: Runny Nose, Sneezing • Cure: • Antibiotics • **Very common in kittens

  30. Respiratory System Problems Bordetella • Cause: Virus • Symptoms: Coughing • Prevention: Vaccine • Cure: • Antibiotics can help symptoms but viruses have to run their course

  31. Respiratory System Problems Reverse Sneeze • Cause: Nasal, Pharyngeal, or sinus irritation OR brachycephalic skulls • Symptoms: Rapid forced inhalation through the nose, snorting and gagging • Cure: • Cover the dogs nose so it has to breath through their mouth and sallow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0IszRBYxsGI

  32. Digestive System • Purpose: • Convert food into energy to live and grow • Made up of: • Mouth, teeth, esophagus • Stomach • Intestines • Glands producing digestive enzymes

  33. Digestive System Monogastric Ruminant

  34. Digestive System • Monogastric • Simple stomach • One comartment • Pig • Horse • Dog • Cat

  35. Digestive System • Ruminants: • One Stomach • 4 compartments • Cattle • Sheep • Goats • Deer/Elk/Moose • Giraffes

  36. Digestive System Problems Foreign Body “Garbage Gut” • Cause: Ingesting foreign material • Symptoms: Vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy • Cure: • Surgery to remove foreign body • What does your pet think tastes good?

  37. Foreign Body “Garbage Gut”

  38. Digestive System Problems Case Study…. Herbie, a 5-year-old, neutered basset hound, presented with a 2-day history of lethargy and intermittent vomiting. The owner had noticed a small number of pebbles in the vomitus. On physical examination, palpation revealed a slightly painful abdomen and a bean bag–like feel to the cranioventral abdomen. Abdominal radiography revealed a large amount of mineral-density, radiopaque material in the stomach, with diffuse gas and additional mineral-density opacities in areas of the intestines and colon

  39. Digestive System Problems Case Study…..

  40. Digestive System Problems Case Study….. During gastrostomy, 2 lb of pea gravel was removed! The owner later discovered that a family member had emptied a pan of grease on some outdoor gravel, and Herbie did what any red-blooded dog would do. Herbie recovered normally from surgery and is back to being the perfect basset hound

  41. Digestive System Problems Obesity Cause: Over-eating, no exercise, table scraps Symptoms: Overweight Cure: Strict diet and exercise

  42. Digestive System Problems Obesity • What’s the danger? • Arthritis • Diabetes • Pancreatitis • Etc • VideoVideo

  43. Obesity