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Biological Hazards

Biological Hazards

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Biological Hazards

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  1. Biological Hazards Dr. Ardini S Raksanagara,dr.,MPH. Public Health Department Faculty of Medicine

  2. SPECIFIC LEARNING OBJECTIVES The student will be able : • to recognize biological hazards in the workplace environment

  3. References • Suma’mur, Higene Perusahaan dan Kesehatan Kerja, CV Haji Masagung, Jakarta, 1994. page 165-167 • Levy & Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston / NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter : 18, page 355-379 • Harrington, Occupational Heath , Pocket Consultant, Blackwell Scientific Publications,1987. page 216-222

  4. Human diseases caused by work associated exposure to microbial agents,  bacteria, viruses, ricketsia, fungi and parasites, are called occupational infection

  5. An infection is described as occupational; when some aspect of the work involves contact with a biologically organism

  6. Biological Hazards • are organisms, and plant and animal agents that may produce both toxic and allergic reactions and include both living and non-living organisms and materials. 

  7. Occupation , expose workers to biological hazards. • Agriculture, • Occupations that deal with plants or animals : animal husbandry, dairy farms, pet shops, • Health care, Laboratory, hospital and medical personnel • Sewerage workers

  8. Occupation associated with a risk of an infectious disease • Health care occupation direct patient contact or laboratory exposure to infective material • Non health care occupation • Primarily contact with animal or animal product • Ground breaking or earth moving • Travel into endemic areas

  9. Biological Hazards 1.Acute and chronic infections 2.Parasites 3.Toxic substances 4.Allergic reactions to plant and animal agents 5.Irritants

  10. Zoonoses • Diseases primarily of animals that are transmitted to humans • Are defined as disease that infect both humans and animals • are diseases transmitted to humans from animals and consist of several different types of diseases: • Bacterial • Viral • Rickettsial • Fungal • Parasitic

  11. Occupations involving contact with infected animal • Infected secretion or tissue • Contact with arthropod vectors from infected animal • Occupations : • Animal laboratory workers Slaughterhouse • Ranchers Pet shop workers • Breeders Veterinarians • Farmers Hide and wool handlers • Dairy workers Zoo attendants • Hunters Sewer, Miners • Wildlife workers

  12. Zoonosis • Brucellosis • Anthrax • Tularemia • Leptospirosis • Psitacosis • Rabies

  13. DISEASE CAUSED BY BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

  14. DISEASE CAUSED BY BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

  15. Plant and vegetable exposures • Agriculture  at risk for occupational and environmental exposure to plant products • Harvesting • Storage of plant product • Fermentation

  16. Dust types • Vegetable fibers • Grain dust • Wood dust • Other plants : coffee, black tea, herbal teas, tobacco

  17. Health effects  Respiratory tract • Acute Health effects • Irritant and allergic rhinitis • Irritant and allergic asthma • Acute upper airway symptoms • Acute lower airway symptoms • Acute febrile syndrome • Acute functional responses

  18. Acute Health Effects

  19. Chronic Health Effects • Prolonged exposure to vegetable dust • Cotton textile industry • Grain handlers • Workers will develop • Chronic bronchitis • Irreversible airway obstruction

  20. Management and Prevention • Management of affected individuals • Medical surveillance method • Annual medical evaluation • Respiratory protective device • Job rotation • Prevention • Assessment and control of dust • Applied new technology : exhaust ventilation, improved work practices • Routine medical surveillance • Reduce exposure, appropriate PPE, appropriate record keeping of both medical and environmental data • Prospective epidemiological studies • Improve technique of biologically relevant dose • Innovative dust control and prevention method

  21. Brucellosis • Is caused by an organism which can infect cattle, sheep, and pigs • The disease cause recurrent abortion in animal and is presents in the placenta, in animal secretion, in milk and urine • Most of occupational cases occur through contact with infected animal or their secretion • Exposed workers are • Veterinarians • Workers in agriculture • Workers in animal husbandary, shepherds, laboratory • Slaughterhouse workers

  22. Control and prevention • Depends on control in animal • Wear protective clothing • Observe proper cooking of animal product and boiling of milk

  23. Anthrax • Is essentially an animal diseases • The disease affect cattle, sheep, horses an pigs • When the animal dies the anthrax bacillus form spores which extremely resistant and can survive for years • Infection can occur through the skin, lungs or the intestine

  24. Exposed workers • Agriculture • Animal husbandry, slaughter houses • Tanneries • Working in manufacture of goods from wool, hair, bones and leather

  25. Prevention for Biological Hazards • proper personal hygiene, Particularly : hand washing. • Hospitals should provide : proper ventilation, proper personal protective equipment such as gloves and respirators, adequate infectious waste disposal systems, appropriate controls including isolation in instances of particularly contagious diseases such as tuberculosis.

  26. Infectious Disease in Developing Countries

  27. next • PSYCHOLOGICAL HAZARDS • STRESS