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The Hazardous Materials Emergency, Security and Safety Management Systems

The Hazardous Materials Emergency, Security and Safety Management Systems. Emergency Management and Emergency Plan of HAZMAT. Ludwig Benner’s Definition Hazmat emergency r esponse p rimarily f ocuses o n t he i nteraction o f t he Hazmat a nd i ts c ontainer.

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The Hazardous Materials Emergency, Security and Safety Management Systems

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  1. The Hazardous Materials Emergency, Security and Safety Management Systems

  2. Emergency Management and Emergency Plan of HAZMAT

  3. Ludwig Benner’s Definition • Hazmat emergency response primarily focuses on the interaction of the Hazmat and its container. • For the purposes of EM, we will use the definition of a hazardous material developed by Ludwig Benner, Jr. Hazardous Materials: Any substance that jumps out of its container when something goes wrong and hurts or harms the things it touches. A hazardous materials incident: Can be defined as the release, or potential release, of A hazardous material from its container into the environment.

  4. The Emergency Plan • The emergency response plan is a portion of the employer’s written health and safety program. The written Emergency Response Plan must addressتتناول the following areas: • Pre-emergency planning and coordination with outside responding agencies, i.e., fire, EMS (Emergency Medical Services),police, etc. • Personnel roles, lines of authority خطوط الاتصالand lines of communication. • Emergency recognition التعرف and prevention (what constitutes an emergency and how to prevent the occurrence).

  5. Safe distances and places of refuge أماكن اللجوء. • Site security and control. • Evacuation routes and procedures. • Decontamination procedures. • Emergency medical treatment and first aid. • Emergency alerts and response. • Personal protective equipment and emergency equipment. • Engineering controls. • Air monitoring; and • Critique نقد of response procedures and follow-up.

  6. In addition to a written emergency response plan, OSHA requires emergency response program personnel be provided with a medical surveillance program برامج المراقبة الطبية. • Personnel responding to emergency releases of a hazardous material are required to receive an initial baseline physical exam. فحص جسماني أولي, an annual physical, and an additional physical at employment termination. Physical exam: evaluation of employee health.

  7. The hazmat regulations establish important requirements for both industry and public safety organizations that respond to hazmat or hazardous waste emergencies. • This includes firefighters, law enforcementتطبيق القانون and EMS personnel, hazmat responders, and Industrial Emergency Response Team (ERT) members. Requirements cover the following areas: • Hazmat emergency response plan. • Emergency response procedures • Specific training requirements covering instructors and both initial and refresher training. • Medical surveillance مراقبةprograms. • Post emergency termination procedures.

  8. Training • Under standards, training is required for any employee who responds to an emergency that tied to specific duties.

  9. Training Levels of Response First Responder (Level 1): Awareness Level. • This level trains employees to be aware of any release of hazardous substances and to alert the response team. This includes observation, reporting and evacuation training. Between 4 and 8 hours of training are acceptable at this level. First Responder (Level 2): Operation Level. • This defensive training applies to employees who are not authorized to stop a release. This level trains them to contain a release, slow the spread of hazardous material, and prevent exposure. • A minimum of 8 hours of training is required. Level 2 responders must know everything that Level 1 personnel know and may be required to take the complete 24-hour training program. Additionally, they must know how to select and use personal protective equipment, how to confine and control a simple spill, and basic decontamination procedures.

  10. The first responder are trained to respond in a defensive fashion طريقة دفاعية without actually trying to stop the release. Their function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures. THE FIRST RESPONDERS SHOULD PROTECT THEMSELVES FIRST! Isolation / Protection • Isolate the area by prohibiting access حظر الوصول • Move un-injured & un-contaminated people outside of the release area. • Isolate anyone contaminated.

  11. First on Scene المشهد الأولي First Responders (FR) on the scene المشهد must: • Establish command/control انشاء القيادة والتحكم(scene management) • Detect the presence of hazardous materials • Begin identification of hazards • Evacuation • Decontamination/personnel protection • Isolate incident/identify zones of activity • Contain incident without risking exposure • Seek additional appropriate resources.

  12. Hazardous Materials Technician (Level 3): • This level teaches employees how to stop the release of hazardous material by patching ترقيع, plugging توصيل, or repairing the vessel or container that is leaking (responding for stopping the release). Training must be at least 24 hours in length. • In addition to covering the same topics as Level 2, the hazardous material technicians must be trained to: • implement the company’s emergency response plan; • identify specific substances through the use of special instruments; • perform advanced containment operations; and • be able to identify personnel who exhibit exposure symptoms. • This training level often includes at least one day of field experience.

  13. Hazardous Materials Specialist (Level 4): • This specialist assists the technician in containing the spill and provides expertise in hazardous substances to be contained. • The specialist also acts as the on-site contact with government authorities. • At this level, OSHA requires at least 24 hours of training. However, it is not uncommon for employees to receive 40 hours of instruction. • Instruction for the hazardous material specialist begins with Level 2 and 3 training. • Specialists are trained to implement the company’s emergency response plan, as well as state and local plans. • Specialists must have an in-depth knowledge of the hazardous materials on-site, hazard and risk assessment techniques, and hazardous material disposal.

  14. These are employees who, in the course of their regular job duties, work with and are trained in the hazards of specific hazardous substances, and who will be called upon to provide technical advice or assistance to the incident commander at a Hazmat incident.

  15. On-scene incident Commander قائد الحدث (Level 5): • This person is in chargeالمسؤولof the entire response, cleanup and disposal operation and OSHA requires a minimum of 24 hours of training. Many employers provide up to 40 hours of training. Training covers the following topics: • the company’s Incident Command System (ICS); نظام قيادة الحوادث في الشركة • emergency response plan; • local, state, and federal (national)emergency response plans; • personal protective equipment; and • decontamination of responders and equipment.

  16. At each level, training must be certified and documented. • Employees must demonstrate يظهرproficiency during each annual refresher training. • If an emergency response team is obligated, ملزمunder a mutual متبادلaid agreement , to respond to an off-site incident, the 24-hour emergency training and response procedures are valid during the emergency period only, i.e., rescue, انقاذcontainment and control, etc. • However, if an emergency response team is engaged in the cleanup of a hazardous waste site, training must comply with all regulations covering hazardous waste site remediationمعالجة and the full 40-hour training is required.

  17. Skilled Support Personnel These Are Personnel Who Are Skilled In The Operation Of Certain Equipment, Such As Cranesونش، رافعة And Hoisting الة رفع Equipment, And Who Are Needed Temporarily To Perform Immediate Emergency Support Work That Cannot Reasonably Be Performed In A Timely Fashion By Emergency Response Personnel. هم من الموظفين المهرة في تشغيل بعض المعدات، مثل الرافعات والونشات والات رفع المعدات، والمحتاجين للقيام الفوري في حالات الطوارئ لدعم العمل الذي لا يمكن أن يؤدي على نحو معقول في الوقت المناسب من قبل الموظفين المستجيبين لحالات الطوارئ

  18. Community Emergency Planning • The establishment of both national and local planning groups to review or develop hazardous materials response plans. • The coordinating point for both planning and training activities at the local level is The Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC)

  19. The LEPC Is Specifically Responsible For Developing And/Or Coordinating The Local Emergency Response System And Capabilities. • Develop, regularly test, and exercise the Hazmat Emergency Operations Plan. • Conduct ahazards analysis of hazmat facilities and transportation corridorsممراتwithin the community. • Receive and manage Hazmat facility reporting information. • Coordinate the community right-to-know aspects جوانب.

  20. Risk Management Programs For Chemical Accidental Release Prevention Facilities that manufacture, process, use, store, or otherwise handle certain regulated substances above established threshold values develop and implement risk management programs (RMP).

  21. Risk management programs consist of three elements: • Hazard assessment of the facility: including the worst-case accidental release and an analysis of potential off-site consequences. الاثار المحتملة خارج الموقع • Prevention program: which addresses safety precautions, maintenance, monitoring, and employee training. EPA believes that the prevention program should adoptيتبنى and build upon the OSHA process safety management standard. • Emergency response considerations: including facility emergency response plans, informing public and local agencies, emergency medical care, and employee training.

  22. MSDS Hazard Communication (Hazcom) Regulation • HAZCOM regulations requires hazardous materials manufacturers and handlers to develop written material safety data sheets (MSDS) on specific types of hazardous chemicals. • Under the hazcom requirements, hazmat health exposure information should be provided to emergency responders during the termination phase, and all exposures should be documented. • Dot regulations govern container design, chemical compatibility, packaging and labeling requirements, shipping papers, transportation routes and restrictions, and so forth.

  23. Level of Incident - Community • Level I Potential Emergency Conditions ظروف الطوارئ المحتملة • Level II Limited Emergency Conditions ظروف الطوارئ المحدودة • Level III Full Emergency Conditions ظروف الطوارئ الكاملة

  24. Level of Incident – Petrochemical Industry • Level 1Incident • Level 2Serious Incident • Level 3Crisis Situation

  25. Hazmat Response Team (HMRT) • Defined as an organized group of trained response personnel operating under an emergency operations plan and appropriate standard operating procedures, who are expected to perform work to handle and control actual or potential leaks or spills of hazardous materials requiring close approach to the material.

  26. Hazmat Response Team (HMRT) • In evaluating the need for an HMRT, consider the following points: • There is no single department or agency that can effectively manage the HazMat issue by itself. • Every community does not require a HMRT. • An HMRT will not necessarily solve the HazMat problem. • There are numerous constraintsقيود and requirements associated with developing an effective HMRT capability.

  27. Control and Cleanup • Spill control must be provided unless the employer is exempt. • All employees must be trained at Level 1. • At least two Level 2 technicians are required to slow and control a hazardous spill. • Additionally, a trained Level 5 Incident Commander must be present. • Once the spill is contained, it must be stopped at the source, cleaned up and disposed of properly. • There are two alternatives when handling incidences: hire توظيف a trained response team or provide the minimum required training to employees. • Many companies train their employees to Level 3 in order to stop and contain the spill. Once contained, a contract company is hired to clean up the spill, transport, and properly dispose of the waste. This method is expensive, but limits the company’s liability. • The alternative, an in-house response team, has several advantages. It creates safety awareness, provides total control of the incident and may reduce costs. However, the company assumes complete liability if the response is mishandled.

  28. Clean-up activities can be classified as follows: • Short-term —those actions immediately following A hazmat release that are primarily directed toward the removal of any immediate hazards and restoring vital support services. • Long-term —those remedial actions that return vital support systems back to normal or improved operating levels. Examples would include groundwater treatment operations, the mitigation of both aboveground and underground spills, and the monitoring of flammable and toxic contaminants.

  29. Decontamination The decontamination plan should: • determine the number and layoutوتخطيطof required stations. • determine the equipment needed. • determine appropriate methods. • establish procedures to prevent contamination of clean areas. • establish methods and procedures to minimize worker contact with contaminants during removal of personal protective equipment; and • establish methods for disposing of clothing and equipment that are completely decontaminated.

  30. Emergency Procedures:Prevention of Spills & Leaks • Read labels and material safety data sheets so you know what you are dealing with and how to protect yourself before there is an emergency • Use proper containers • Inspect containers regularly to make sure they are in good condition • Secondary containment and spill kits for damaged packages

  31. Identify material by using labels, markings, shipping papers, MSDS’s or emergency response guidebook. • If properly trained, contain spill by using absorbent materials or secondary containment, avoiding contact with skin, eyes and clothing. • Shut doors of the room or area and prohibit entry. • If necessary sound the fire alarm and evacuate.

  32. When calling emergency personnel, the following information should be given: • Name and department • Location of emergency • Substance name • Size of spill • Approximate rate of flow • Actions taken to control spill

  33. Absorbent materials • Oil dry • Broom مكنسة • Shovel جاروف • Gloves • Goggles Examples of Emergency Equipment PPT-048-01 94

  34. Internal communications telephones. • Portable fire equipment and extinguishers • Spill control equipment • Water in adequate volumes and pressure for fire control Emergency Equipment PPT-048-01 95

  35. HAZMAT Security Plan

  36. HazMat Security Implementation of a security plan is needed if you offer, deal, or transport the HazMAT. At a minimum your security plan must address: • Personnel Security. • Unauthorized Access. • En route Security الطريق الامن. Employers are responsible for training their employees and implementing their security plan. Compliance is currently being enforced!

  37. Personnel Security: • Verify التحقق information provided on employment applications. • Ensure employees are familiar with security plans. • Encourage employees to report suspicious مشبوهincidents or events. • Implement routine security inspections. • Meet regularly to discuss security measures and improve awareness. • Provide information on security issues. • Provide awareness and in-depth security training.

  38. Unauthorized Accessالوصول الممنوع • Security review of facility. • Restrict access to facility. • Improve security procedures for pick-upامساكand deliveries. • Lock vehicles and secure containers. • Inventory جرد on-site hazmat periodically.

  39. En Route Securityالسلوك الأمني • Identify preferred routes and alternatives • Minimize stops • If hazmat must be stored during transportation, ensure storage facility is secure • Keep doors locked • Do not leave vehicle unsecured if cargo is still inside • Be aware of your surroundings • Report suspicious activities to local law enforcement

  40. Management of HazMat Security Plan Risk Management Self-Evaluation Framework (RMSEF). Based on the result of the RSEF develop your security plan to improve weak areas. The RMSEF utilizes the following steps • Scoping الفحص. • Knowledge of Operations معرفة الاجراءات. • Assessment التقييم. • Strategy الاستراتيجية. • Action الفعل. • Verification التحقق. • Evaluation التقييم.

  41. Scoping: Determining the scopeنطاق of operations that should be subject to security risk management. Identify the types of HazMat you handle and the modes of transport which are used. Knowledge of Operations: Review your current security procedures and related safety programs. Assessment:Analyze potential security threats and identify security control points where improvements can be made.تحليل التهديدات الأمنية المحتملة وتحديد نقاط المراقبة الأمنية بحيث يمكن إجراء تحسينات. Strategy: Prioritize and group security risk and decide on preventative procedures. Create a written security plan summarizing those procedures. تحديد وتجميع أولويات الخطر الأمني واتخاذ قرار بشأن الإجراءات الوقائية. و إنشاء خطة أمنية مكتوبة تلخص تلك الإجراءات.

  42. Action: Implement the plan! Verification:التحققImplementation of the security plan must be monitored. يجب رصد تنفيذ الخطة الأمنية. Evaluation: Determine if your goals are being met and if your strategy is getting results in the field. Encourage your employees to report any and all suspicious activity. Implement routine inspections. Conduct regular meetings on security topics.

  43. Establish a partnership with local emergency responders. إقامة شراكة مع المستجيبين المحليين للطوارئ

  44. Training: The training should cover the following: • Company security objectives. الأهداف الامنية للشركة. • Specific company security procedures. الإجراءات الأمنية محددة للشركة. • Employee responsibilities. • Action to take in the event of a security breach. الإجراء الواجب اتخاذه في حالة حدوث خرق أمني. • Organizational security structure. الهيكل الأمني التنظيمي.

  45. How do we inform the public and involved personnel without giving too much information to criminals and/or terrorists? Placarded shipments of HazMat do not necessarily make an effective target for terrorists.

  46. As the technology develops alternatives to the placarding regulations are on the horizon. في الافق • RFID (radio frequency identification tags بطاقات ) • GPS vehicle tracking systems • Centralized Information System All signs point to placards as an irreplaceable source of readily available hazard information. تشير جميع الإشارات إلى أن اللافتات هي مصدر لا يمكن الاستغناء عنه لمعلومات الخطر المتاحة بسهولة

  47. HazMat Safety • HazMat Compliance الامتثال لأنظمة المواد الخطرة

  48. Hazardous Materials Safety

  49. HazMat Safety There are over 17 Million different chemicals in use around the world each day.

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