Task: Display familiarization with the Field Sanitation and personal hygiene standards of the United States Army. Conditions: Given this briefing summarizing guidance from the following listed references Standard: Answer questions displaying knowledge of Field Sanitation and personal hygiene standards.
The Influenza Pandemic of 1918 The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 killed more people than the Great War, known today as World War I (WWI), at somewhere between 20 and 40 million people. It has been cited as the most devastating epidemic in recorded world history. More people died of influenza in a single year than in four-years of the Black Death Bubonic Plague from 1347 to 1351. Known as "Spanish Flu" or "La Grippe" the influenza of 1918-1919 was a global disaster
Introduction to Field Sanitation • This course is designed to enhance, sustain, or provide individual understanding of Field Sanitation and Hygiene
Class Outline • 1- Medical threat to field forces • 2- Personal hygiene • 3- Water supplies • 4- Waste disposal in the field • 5- Arthropods & diseases • 6- Management of arthropods & individual PMM
Class Outline (cont’d) 7- Control of arthropods with pesticides 8- Rodent control & management 9- Chemical hazards 10- Noise hazards
Regulations and Publications • AR 40-5, Preventive Medicine • FM 21-10-1, Unit Field Sanitation Team • FM 21-10, Field Hygiene and Sanitation • TB MED 577, Surveillance of Field Water Supplies • TB MED 530, Food Service Sanitation
Debilitating and Non-Battle Injury(DNBI) DNBI accounts for more than 50% of casualties Direct reflection on the lack of PMM Lack of PMM causes breakdown in soldier’s health and capability to function
Medical Threat to Field Forces Casualties caused by DNBI have had a serious impact on military operations since the dawn of recorded history The four major contributors to DNBI are: HeatTransmitted diseases ColdDiarrheal diseases
Importance of Field Sanitation The success or failure of the unit and its mission may be jeopardized because of the lack of proper preventive medicine measures To help reduce disease and health problems, soldiers at every level must be educated on Field Sanitation
Importance of the Field Sanitation Team (FST) FST members should instruct/guide soldiers on the hazards of neglected personal hygiene The FST must have basic sanitation and protection roles
Role of the FST Supervise: Disinfecting of water Construction of garbage areas Construction of soakage pits Construction and cleaning of field latrines
Role of the FST Provide training and guidance to food service personnel on the prevention and elimination of deficiencies in food service sanitation Report any deficiencies to the commander for necessary action
Personal Hygiene and Preventive Medicine Measures
Promote Personal Hygieneby • arranging for hand-washing and showering facilities • providing hot water for showering and shaving • providing heated dressing rooms • providing sanitary controls • preventing water collecting and pooling
Hygiene Devices • Hand-wash devices at each latrine • Hand-wash for soldiers at eating locations • Hand-wash for cooks at the field kitchen • Soakage pits • Soap and towels
Good Personal Hygiene Prevents • Foot problems • Skin rashes • Body lice • Hair lice • Diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems • Depression and social instability
Good Personal Hygiene Promotes • Healthier soldiers • Self-satisfaction among troops • Better work performance • Less sick calls • More soldiers on the front line
In combat, safe water ranks in importance with ammunition and food. It often has an important bearing on the success or the failure of a mission.
Importance of Good Water • Soldiers must be supplied with sufficient amounts of water Water must be safe to drink and cook with • Water should be safe and clear of objectionable tastes, odors, turbidity, and color • Water is a vehicle for transmission of disease organisms
Testing the Water • Water should be tested for the presence of Coliform bacteria • Coliform bacterii are found in great numbers in the excreta (feces) of humans • Hepatitis, leptospirosis, typhoid, cholera, diarrhea may be present in feces
Production of Safe Water • Check the bacterial content • Check the chlorine residual content • Establish standards for water quality • Inspect water points • After testing and treating, approve water for consumption and use
Water Supply and Treatment The unit commander makes certain that: • There is an adequate supply of good water • The rules of water discipline are enforced • Everyone understands the hazards of drinking unsafe water • The water supply will be protected by good sanitary practices
Terms and Definitions • Palatable - agreeable taste • Potable - safe to drink • Treatment - procedure to change the chemical composition • Chlorinating - increases the residual level to a safe minimum • PPM - parts per million
Disinfecting the Lyster Bag • Dissolve calcium hypochlorite ampules in a canteen cup • Add to water, stir • Flush faucets • Wait ten minutes • Test water for proper residual levels • Let water stand for 20 minutes before use
Treating the400 Gallon Water Trailer • Mix 3 MRE spoonfuls of calcium hypochlorite with 1/2 cup of water • Add to water, stir • Flush faucets • Wait ten minutes, test again • If residuals are at 5 PPM, wait 20 minutes before use
Treating the Canteen • Use two iodine tablets in each full canteen of water • Place tablets in canteen, wait 5 minutes • Shake canteen • Loosen cap, allow clean water to seep around the neck to kill any organisms • Minimum contact time is 30 minutes
Water Supplies • Under all situations in the field, soldiers must be supplied with sufficient amounts of potable water. • This requires a coordinated effort between the State medical authority, the commander, and the field sanitation team.
Waste Disposal in the Field • Proper waste disposal is essential in preventing the spread of disease. Solid and liquid wastes produced under field conditions can be as much as 100 lbs per person per day. • The unit commander and First Sergeant are responsible for the removal of trash and garbage, not Food Services.
Human Waste Disposal • Huge problem for the unit and soldiers in the field • Chemical Latrines should be provided for 4% of the male population and for 6% of the female population • Located 100 yards downhill from water sources and field kitchens • Hand-wash devices should be provided at each latrine
Garbage Disposal • Most Training Sites • do not allow burying garbage • garbage must be separated • must be hauled to landfill • Liquid waste (grease and oils) • 1-5 gallons per person per day is normal • must be contained for proper disposal • most training sites have recycle drums
Waste Disposal • Before trash, garbage, grease, oils, or human waste is burned, buried, dug in, or covered up, check with the Installation Environmental Officer for proper procedures. It may save you at lot of headaches and money.
Arthropods and Disease • It is important for you to know that throughout history more soldiers have been killed or disabled from arthropod-borne disease than from actual combat.
Arthropods Any member of the phylum Arthropoda, which includes the insects, centipedes, crustaceans, millipedes, mites, scorpions, spiders, ticks, fleas, mosquitoes, flies, etc. In many cases, the arthropod is the vehicle or cause of the disease.
How Arthropods Affect Human Health • By direct injury • stings or bites • Through disease transmission • bacteria deposited on food • Myiasis • larvae migrate through human host • fly eggs turn into maggots in stool
Common Arthropods • mosquitoes filth fly house fly scorpions ticks mites fleas red bugs deer flies wasps
Arthropod-borne Diseases Malaria - mosquito Yellow Fever- mosquito Dengue Fever- mosquito Encephalitis - mosquito & ticks Typhus - body lice Bubonic Plague- fleas
Management of Arthropods through Field Sanitation and PMM Since the ideal location of bivouac sites are not always possible, we must know how to manage arthropods which affect the health of the soldiers. Through effective measures we can control arthropod infestation.
Individual PMM Clothing • worn loosely • trouser legs tucked in without blousing rubbers • shirt sleeves rolled down and buttoned • no holes or tears • head gear worn (insect screen may be attached)
Clothing Repellent Some repellents can be applied directly to the clothing. The two methods which are acceptable are by aerosol spray or by dipping into a repellent solution. Either method must be approved by the Installation Surgeon and the directions for use must be strictly followed.
Skin Repellent Repellent may be applied directly to the skin, spread evenly over the area. Do not get chemicals into eyes. Skin repellent may be used on clothing. Apply a few drops or spray compound on clothing around openings.
PMM for rest periods Screened billets- desirable, but not always available Bed nets- a necessity to be used in conjunction with screened billets Aerosol spray- the last line of defense, sprayed in and around billets
Equipment used for Control Hand Duster- delousing application Hand Pressure Sprayer- general application - 2 gallon capacity Aerosol cans- general application for small areas Bottles- general application for uncovered skin
Control of Arthropods with Pesticides A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances or chemicals which kills pests. Pesticides are used to augment, not replace, field sanitation and individual PMM.
Application of Pesticides IMPORTANT FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN DISPENSING PESTICIDES: • Toxic effect when inhaled • Degree and speed of skin absorption • Cumulative effect in the body • Concentration of toxicant • Amount of pesticide that must be applied • Conditions under which chemicals are applied
Rodent Management • Rodents are the carriers of several diseases which are harmful to humans • The best known and most serious is the plague, a disease transmitted to humans by rodent fleas • Rodents are known to cause millions of dollars of damage to crops
Types of Rodents • Norway Rat • found at ground level • likes to burrow in the ground • found mostly in temperate regions • roams 100-150 feet in search of food and water • likes people food • life span 1 year • each female can produce 84 young rats per year