STATUS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN KENYA PRESENTATION TO VLIR-OUS STRATEGY IDENTIFICATION PROCESS: KENYA SEMINAR KENYA EMBASSY – BRUSSELS 11 SEPTMEBR 2014 1
KENYA’S BACKGROUND 2 Total area : 582,646 Sq km Comparison to the world : N0.49 Land surface area: 569 ,140sq Km Water: 13,506sq km borders Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Ethiopia and South Sudan Population: 43,013,341 African rank 7
Politicaland Governance structure 3 Its a sovereign Democratic state. With a multi-party political system. The President ,the Deputy-President and the cabinet secretaries comprise the executive. The current President H.E Hon. Uhuru Kenyatta. The Deputy President is Hon. William Samoei Ruto
The 21st Century Belongs to Africa Africa has Visionary Leaders Vision Strategy Plan Land Human Resource Tourism Agriculture Minerals
Why Kenya? Regional Positioning Kenya’s Competitiveness
Why KENYA • Gateway to Eastern, Central and Southern Africa • Third Largest economy in Africa • Well developed human resources • Kenya ranked 29th globally in Human Resource Development • 12th in labour flexibility/productivity • Top spender in Research and Development(45% in GDP • Strong entrepreneurial culture • Relatively well developed infrastructure
REVIEW OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION SECTOR • 1970: First Kenyan university • Total enrollment in public universities has increased from 3,443 students in 1970 to 159,752 students in 2009/2010. • Transition rate from secondary level to university still remains low. • 22 public and 9 constituent university colleges.
Legal and Policy Framework University Education in Kenya is governed by • Constitution of Kenya 2010 • Universities Act No. 42 of 2012 and other related Acts of Parliament • Adult Education Act, Higher Education Loans Board Act of 1995 • State Corporations Act of 2010 • Public Private Partnership Act of 2013. Guidance is provided through the Sessional Paper No. 14, 2012, Kenya Vision 2030, Second Medium Term Plan 2013-2017, National Strategy for University Education (2008-2015), Public Universities Inspection Report of 2006 (PUIB),Report of the Taskforce on Re-alignment of the Education Sector to the constitution of Kenya 2010, and the Jubilee Manifesto.
RATIONALE FOR THE UNIVERSITY EDUCATION POLICY • The Instrumental role – assumes universities have a concentration of expertise that should be applied to pressing social problems. • Engine development notion – focuses on strengthening knowledge and innovation as crucial productive forces without which no country can participate in the global knowledge economy. • Self governing notion – the university contributes to development indirectly, by among other things, producing high level skills and knowledge.
Goals and Objectives of University Education • Increase in Gross Enrollments Rates: • Attain Equity in University Education Enrollment that reflects National Diversity. • Removal of inadequate household income as a barrier to university education by 2022 • To improve quality and relevance of learning and research for National development. • Attraction and retention of high calibre human resource.
FINANCING OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION • University education is expensive and requires huge investments by all partners. • Public universities have to reduce their dependence on the Government by diversifying their sources of income. • The Government has adopted a mix of the following strategies: • Introducing or increasing fees or user charges • Establishing lean and efficient management systems • Designing or improving systems of student support • Seeking new sources of private funding • Promoting the growth of private institutions
Funding structure for University Education UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FUNDING Tuition and Fees Government Budgetary Support Government Funds for Capital Development Funding from the Private Sector Research Grants, Consultancies and other IGAs Research Grants Consultancies
Income Generating Activities • This policy advocates that universities engage in other income generating activities to boost their revenue base, so long as participation in those activities doe not pull resources or detract the universities from their core business.
Differentiated Unit Cost in Public Universities • The current funding structure for government –sponsored students in public universities is not based on the unit cost for undergraduate programmes but allocated uniformly per student enrolled irrespective of the course a student is pursuing. • This policy advocates that public universities adopt differentiated unit costs (DUC) based on their individual programmes. • The introduction of the DUC will eliminate the distinction between the Government-sponsored and self-sponsored students in public universities.
Removal of Finance as a Barrier to University Education • Undergraduate government scholarships currently administered through the Joint Admission Board (JAB) are restricted to public institutions • based primarily on the student’s performance. • In order to finance all students who have received admission to University, the Government scholarships will be progressively reduced and by 2022, only Government loans and bursaries will be available to students. • This policy also advocates for an increase in the number of post-graduate scholarships available from Government and from the private sector.
UNDERGRADUATE UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS - Admissions for self-sponsored undergraduate, as well as all post-graduate at both public and private universities are currently handled directly and solely by the individual institutions. Challenges faced by the current admissions system include: • Government scholarships are only available in public institutions. • Students often slotted into programmes that they did not opt for. • Continued support for programmes which are neither popular nor required in the market.
Extension of Government Scholarships To increase access, choice and to promote the entire university sector, this policy advocates for the extension of Government scholarships for students to attend the University of their choice, public or private. Based on their performance, students would be able to take up a Government scholarship at their university of choice.
Coordinated Undergraduate Admissions The Government will establish a national, centrally coordinated student admission process to ensure that quality students are admitted into universities and colleges. The universities may also individually recruit additional students into programmes that may not have been filled through the centralized admissions.
Career Guidance This policy advocates for a coordinated career guidance programme, and dissemination of adequate information to students and schools, to promote informed programme and career choice especially as relates to employability, job-creation an student ability.
Governance and Management Structures The Chancellor University Councils The Vice Chancellor
Categorization of Universities To better meet objectives, this policy advocates that universities be categorized as: • Comprehensive Universities – research and teaching • Research Universities – predominantly research institutions • Teaching Universities – predominantly teaching universities • Public Universities – wholly owned by the Government • Private Universities established as either profit or non-profit institutions.
Government Institutions This policy advocates the strengthening and expansion of the CHE, the creation of a body to be responsible for direct funding of universities, as well as the formalization of and provision of an increased mandate for JAB. To meet the objectives set out in this policy, three semi-autonomous government agencies for the efficient and effective running of the university education sector are proposed: The Commission for University Education (CUE), the Universities Funding Board (UFB) and the Kenya Universities and College and Admission Service (KUCAS)
The Commission of University Education CUE will take on the expanded and strengthened role of the CHE, as the regulatory authority for university education. The mandates of the commission will include: • Institutional establishment and award of charters • Collecting, analyzing and disseminating university education data • Approve the process of design and development of new programmes • Approve accreditation bodies
The University Funding Board • Formulation of mechanisms to determine the financial needs of each public institution. • Make available conditional capital development grants and loans to private universities • Establish maximum programme differentiated unit costs. • Establish minimum discipline differentiated remunerations • To mobilize additional financial resources to achieve its mandate
The Kenya University and Colleges Admission Service • Coordination of admission of current undergraduate KCSE cohort to public and private universities based on performance and choice. • Provide a unified comprehensive portal providing programme information available at all universities. • Provide coordinated career guidance programme and dissemination of adequate information to students and schools.
Human Resource in Support of University Education The university education sub-sector human resource challenges have been synthesized around the following key pillars: • Ability to attract and retain qualified staff • Training and retention of adequate Phd holders • Ensuring that universities portray a national outlook, especially at top management level.
Challenges Facing University Education • Access • Equity • Quality • Relevance • Financing • Gender and regional disparities • Faculty quality and inadequate human resource. • Lack of capacity to cater for the growing demand
What needs to be done • Significantly increase access, while ensuring equity • Provide incentives and an enabling environment for the private sector • Ensure relevance of education to the needs of the job market, national priorities and job creation. • Develop creative financing mechanisms to ensure sustainability and controlled expansion of the sub –sector. • Develop incentives to ensure attraction and retention of quality human resource. • Promote high standards of ethical and moral behavior among students • Develop a spirit of community service among students • Markedly enhance the global competitiveness of Kenya in key strategic areas.
MISSION TO KENYA • Administrative information • Ministry of Education, Science & Technology • Contacts established so far • Role of Kenya Embassy • EAC Policy framework for University education
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Contacts 39 Embassy of Republic of Kenya Avenue Winston Churchill 208 1180 Brussels- Belgium Tel: +32(02) 340 10 40 Fax : +32(02) 340 10 50 Email: email@example.com
THANK YOU 40