Space Missions Finding a way to coexist in the future
Space Missions *Early rockets were used to launch astronauts in a small capsule into space, while the rest of the rocket burned up in the atmosphere. *Space shuttles were launched with an external liquid-fuel tank, and two internal solid-fuel booster rockets. The two solid-fuel tanks parachute back to Earth and were reused. The liquid-fuel tank also returned, but could not be reused. • How are space shuttles different from rockets?
Space Missions Once the space shuttle reached space,the astronauts could perform various tasks. *Study the effects of space on the human body *Launch, repair, and retrieve satellites • What type of work could be done on a space shuttle?
Space Missions Space Shuttle – Astronauts could only spend a short time on these due to its small size Space Station – Has living quarters, work and exercise areas, and all equipment needed to live and work in space • What is the difference between a space shuttle and a space station? Skylab
Space Missions Skylab – Launched in 1973 by the US. Crews spent up to 84 days aboard it studying the effects of space on humans. After being abandoned, it fell out of orbit and burned up reentering Earth’s atmosphere in 1979. Mir – Soviet space station where crews spent up to 438 days in space. • What is the difference between a US and a Soviet space station? Mir
Russia and the United States In early 1995, Dr. Norman Thagard (an American), was launched into orbit on Soyuz, a Russian spacecraft, with two other Russians. He was the first American aboard the Russian space station Mir. In June 1995, Russian cosmonauts were launched into orbit aboard the American space shuttle, Atlantis. The mission of Atlantis was to dock with the space station Mir. There were 8 more space shuttle and Mir docking missions before Mir was abandoned and fell out of orbit and burned in 2001. This was the beginning stages of the creation of the International Space Station.
Space Missions *The biggest object ever flown in space *Orbits around Earth at a speed of about 27,700km/hr (about 16 orbits per day) *Flies about 350 km above Earth. We can see it with our eyes at night. *16 countries worked together to build the Space Station Has been the host of rotating crews for about 6 months at a time since November 2000 Different countries rotate turns. • What is the International Space Station? International Space Station
Phases of the ISS • 1st Phase – Mir docking station • November 1998 – Launch of the Russian structure, Zarya Control Module. Battery power and fuel storage. • July 2000 – Zvezda is added and become the life support and main system functions. Contains living areas for the station’s first crews. • October 2000 – First truss goes up. A truss is a structure that connects external utilities, such as power, data, and video. • October 30, 2000 – First crew members move in. Bill Shepard, Yuri Gidzenko, and Sergei Krikalev ride the Soyuz spacecraft there for a 5 month test flight. • November 2000 – Solar panels are added.
Phases of the ISS • February 2001 – Destiny, the first research laboratory, was added. Launched by the US space shuttle Atlantis. • March 2001 – Space shuttle Discovery brought the second crew and returned the first home • April 2001 – Canadarm 2 is placed outside the space station to help connect future structures • February 2008 – European Space Agency’s laboratory, Columbus, was delivered and installed • March 2008 – 1st part of Japanese Space Agency’s laboratory, Kibo, was delivered and installed
International Space Station Facts • About the length and width of a football field • 10th anniversary of continuous human occupation on Nov. 2, 2010 • Has been visited by 204 individuals • There have been 133 launches to the space station • 168 spacewalks were done with the assembly
Space Missions *Global Surveyor – Launched in 1996. Orbited Mars and took photos of its surface. Scientists used photos to determine that there was water near the surface in some areas. *Pathfinder – Landed on the surface. Technology and a remote controlled robot called Sojourner studied the surface. • How did we explore Mars? Spirit and Opportunity Pathfinder
Space Missions *Odyssey – Orbited and began mapping the surface in 2002. Confirmed that soil in southern polar areas contained frozen water. *Spirit and Opportunity – Rovers launched in 2003. Goal was to study rocks and soil. *Phoenix – Landed in May 2008. Studied the water on the surface and its role in Mar’s history. • How did we explore Mars? Odyssey Phoenix
Exploring the Moon • Lunar Prospector – Launched in 1998. One-year mission to orbit the moon. Map the structure and composition. • Studies indicated that water may be trapped in the craters at the Moon’s poles. • Water previously delivered to the moon by comets or meteorites may be trapped forever. • Lunar Prospector was crashed into a lunar crater on purpose at the end of the one-year mission. Scientists hoped to see water vapor during the crash, but none was seen.
Space Missions • Launched in October 1997 • A space probe whose destination was to Saturn • *Delivered European Space Agency’s probe, Huygens, to Saturn’s largest moon, Titan • * Scientists believe that Titan’s atmosphere may be similar to early Earth due to the fact that it seems to have frozen water many layers below the surface, and its seasons seem to be changing. • What is Cassini?
Space Missions • James Webb Space Telescope • Large infrared-optimized space telescope • Will allow scientists to study the evolution of galaxies and stars, the production of elements by stars, and the process of star and planet formation • Will have to be able to see through dusty clouds • Hopes to be able to be launched in 2018 • What is the future of space telescopes?
How is space technology and research used in everyday life? • Engine lubricants, aluminized polymers for insulation, new ceramics for bones in hip replacement • Space medicines helped create better heart pacemakers, kidney dialysis machines, vision screening systems, cochlear implants • Can help catch criminals and prevent accidents by allowing police to clear up blurry images • Equipment can be placed on emergency vehicles to automatically change traffic lights