QUIT 18 C H A P T E R Cold War Conflicts CHAPTER OBJECTIVE INTERACT WITH HISTORY TIME LINE Origins of the Cold War 1 SECTION MAP The Cold War Heats Up 2 SECTION The Cold War at Home 3 SECTION Two Nations Live on the Edge 4 SECTION GRAPH VISUAL SUMMARY
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE HOME 18 C H A P T E R Cold War Conflicts To understand the international and domestic tensions resulting from the Cold War
HOME 18 C H A P T E R Cold War Conflicts I N T E R A C T W I T H H I S T O R Y At the end of World War II, Americans begin to be haunted by a new fear. The Soviets have embraced a tightly controlled political system called communism. Many believe it threatens the American way of life. Throughout the nation, suspected communists are called before a House subcommittee for questioning. Anyone accused of un-American activity faces public humiliation and professional ruin. What do you do when a friend is accused? Examine the Issues • Do Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat to the nation? • What can individual citizens do to protect the rights of all people? • Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights of others?
TIME LINE 1948Berlin airlift begins. 1948Harry S. Truman is elected president. 1949 China becomes communist under Mao Zedong. 1949United States joins NATO. 1953Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed as spies. 1953Participants in Korean War agree on cease-fire. 1950Korean War begins. 1954French are defeated in Vietnam. 1954Senator Joseph McCarthy alleges Communist involvement in U.S. Army. 1950U.S. sends troops to Korea. HOME 18 C H A P T E R Cold War Conflicts The United States The World 1945United Nations is established. 1946Churchill gives his “Iron Curtain” speech. 1952U.S. explodes first hydrogen bomb. Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected president. continued . . .
TIME LINE HOME 18 C H A P T E R Cold War Conflicts The United States The World 1957Soviets launch Sputnik. 1959Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba. 1960Francis Gary Powers’s U-2 spy plane is shot down by the Soviets. John F. Kennedy is elected president.
1 S E C T I O N Origins of the Cold War HOME MAP KEY IDEA The Allied coalition falls apart as the United States and the Soviet Union find themselves in conflict with each other. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N Origins of the Cold War •satellite nation •Marshall Plan •Berlin Airlift •Truman Doctrine •Cold War •iron curtain •containment •North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) •United Nations (UN) HOME MAP OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW After World War II, differences between the United States and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st century. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
1 S E C T I O N Origins of the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 1. Describe the United States actions and the Soviet actions that contributed most to the cold war. U.S. Actions Soviet Actions Marshall Plan Aid to Greece and Turkey Containment Truman Doctrine Berlin Airlift Refusal to allow free elections in Poland Control of Eastern Europe Blockade of West Berlin continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N Origins of the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 2. People who had served as aides to President Franklin Roosevelt worried that Truman was not qualified to handle world leadership. Considering what you learned in this section, evaluate Truman as a world leader. Think About: •his behavior toward Stalin •his economic support of European nations •his support of West Berlin ANSWER • POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • Truman was an effective leader who took firm actions to contain Soviet influence and support the Marshall Plan and Berlin Airlift. • He overreacted and was too belligerent. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N Origins of the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 3. Which of the two superpowers do you think was more successful in achieving its aims during the period 1945–1949? ANSWER • POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • The Soviets were most successful because they extended their influence into Eastern Europe. • The United States was more successful because it broke the blockade of West Berlin and helped rebuild Europe. continued . . .
1 S E C T I O N Origins of the Cold War ASSESSMENT HOME MAP 4. What were Stalin’s motives in supporting Communist governments in Eastern Europe? ANSWER Stalin wanted Eastern Europe as a buffer zone to protect the Soviet Union from an invasion on its western front. End of Section 1
2 S E C T I O N The Cold War Heats Up HOME KEY IDEA U.S. containment policies and Communist successes in China and North Korea lead to the Korean War. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
2 S E C T I O N The Cold War Heats Up •Korean War •Mao Zedong •Taiwan • 38th parallel •Chiang Kai-shek HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a democratic south. Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENT Event Two Event Four Event Six Event One Event Three Event Five Event Seven HOME 2 S E C T I O N The Cold War Heats Up 1. List the major events of the Korean War. June 1950North Korea invades South Korea. Sept. 1950MacArthur launches a counterattack at Inchon. Nov. 1950China enters the war. 1948Korea is split into two nations. June 1950U.S. supports South Korea. Sept.-Oct. 1950The UN counterattack succeeds. July 1953The Armistice is signed. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The Cold War Heats Up ASSESSMENT HOME 2. What might have happened if MacArthur had convinced Truman to expand the fighting into China? How might today’s world be different? ANSWER A third world war might have broken out, resulting in the obliteration of millions by nuclear weapons. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The Cold War Heats Up ASSESSMENT HOME 3. Many Americans have questioned whether fighting the Korean War was worthwhile. What is your opinion? Why? Think About: •the loss of American lives •the fear of communism that enveloped the country at the time •the stalemate that ended the war ANSWER • POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • The war was not worthwhile because Korea remained a divided nation. • The war was worthwhile because, without it, all of Korea might have become Communist. continued . . .
2 S E C T I O N The Cold War Heats Up ASSESSMENT HOME 4. At the end of China’s civil war, the United States refused to accept the communist People’s Republic of China as China’s true government. What were the advantages of such a policy? What were the disadvantages? ANSWER Advantages—The United States remained committed to its policy of containment of Communism. Disadvantages—Refusal to recognize the Communist government in China kept the United States from influencing China and drove China into an alliance with the Soviet Union. End of Section 2
3 S E C T I O N The Cold War at Home HOME KEY IDEA The Cold War kindles a fear of Communist influence in the United States. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N The Cold War at Home •Alger Hiss •Hollywood Ten •McCarthyism •HUAC •blacklist •Ethel and Julius Rosenberg •Joseph McCarthy HOME OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW During the late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens. Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
3 S E C T I O N The Cold War at Home ASSESSMENT HOME 1. Give four examples of how anti-Communist fear gripped the country. HUAC investigates un-American activities in Hollywood. Spy cases increase fears. Anti-Communist fear gripped the country. McCarthy arouses fear of a Communist conspiracy. Congress passes the McCarran Act. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N The Cold War at Home ASSESSMENT HOME 2. If you had lived in this period and had been accused of being a Communist, what would you have done? Think About: •the Hollywood Ten, who refused to answer questions •the Rosenbergs, who pleaded the Fifth Amendment ANSWER • POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • I would have refused to name others because that would have been the honorable course to take. • I would have shown loyalty to the United States by answering the committee’s questions. continued . . .
3 S E C T I O N The Cold War at Home ASSESSMENT HOME 3. Choose one of the following roles: Harry Truman, a member of HUAC, Judge Irving Kaufman, or Joseph McCarthy. As the person you have chosen, explain your motivation for opposing communism. ANSWER Truman: He feared the spread of communism in Asia and Europe. HUAC: Its members believed that communists were sneaking propaganda into films. Irving Kaufman: He believed that Communist spies were responsible for the Korean War. Joseph McCarthy: He believed that communism was infiltrating the country. End of Section 3
4 S E C T I O N Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME GRAPH KEY IDEA Tension mounts between the United States and the Soviet Union as both try to spread their influence around the world. OVERVIEW ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N Two Nations Live on the Edge •John Foster Dulles •Warsaw Pact •Nikita Khrushchev •brinkmanship •CIA •U-2 incident •H-bomb •Dwight D. Eisenhower •Francis Gary Powers •Eisenhower Doctrine HOME GRAPH OVERVIEW MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW During the 1950s, the United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war. The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. TERMS & NAMES ASSESSMENT
4 S E C T I O N Two Nations Live on the Edge ASSESSMENT Trouble Spot Headline HOME GRAPH 1. List cold war trouble spots in Guatemala, Iran, Egypt and Hungary. For each, write a newspaper headline that summarizes the U.S. role and the outcome of the situation. Guatemala CIA-Trained Army Topples Guatemalan Government Iran U.S. Prevents Iranian-Soviet Alliance Egypt U.S. Urges Peaceful Suez Solution Hungary United States Refuses to Send Help to Hungarians as Soviets Put Down Revolt continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Two Nations Live on the Edge ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH 2. How might the Cold War have progressed if the U-2 incident had never occurred? Think About: •the mutual distrust between the Soviet Union and the United States •the outcome of the incident ANSWER The U-2 incident greatly increased tension. Had it not happened, the United States and the Soviet Union might have taken steps to resolve their differences. continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Two Nations Live on the Edge ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH 3. Which of the two superpowers do you think contributed more to Cold War tensions during the 1950s? ANSWER • POSSIBLE RESPONSES: • The Soviets contributed more to Cold War tension because they took over Eastern Europe, crushed the Hungarian Uprising, and rejected Eisenhower’s “open skies” proposal. • The United States contributed more to Cold War tensions because of the U-2 incident, the Eisenhower Doctrine, and United States involvement in Guatemala and Iran. • Both countries were equally at fault. continued . . .
4 S E C T I O N Two Nations Live on the Edge ASSESSMENT HOME GRAPH 4. Should one nation have the right to remove another nation’s head of government from power? If so, when? If not, why? ANSWER POSSIBLE RESPONSES: Yes: if the head of government has policies that threaten the other nation’s existence No: Every country has the right to determine its own government without outside interference. End of Section 4