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Chapter 1

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  1. Chapter 1 The Language of Anatomy

  2. Anatomical position and Surface anatomy • Anatomical Position • Standing upright with palms facing forward • Surface Anatomy • Axial • Head, neck and trunk • Appendicular • Limbs and their attachment to the axis

  3. Nasal (nose) Frontal (forehead) Oral (mouth) Orbital (eye) Buccal (cheek) Cervical (neck) Mental (chin) Acromial (point of shoulder) Sternal (breastbone) Axillary (armpit) Thoracic (chest) Abdominal (abdomen) Mammary (breast) Brachial (arm) Antecubital (front of elbow) Antebrachial (forearm) Umbilical (navel) Pelvic (pelvis) Carpal (wrist) Pollex (thumb) Palmar (palm) Coxal (hip) Digital (fingers) Inguinal (groin) Pubic (genital region) Femoral (thigh) Patellar (anterior knee) Fibular, or peroneal (side of leg) Crural (leg) Tarsal (ankle) Hallux (great toe) Pedal (foot) Digital (toes) (a) Anterior Regional Terms: Anterior View Figure 1.7a

  4. Otic (ear) Cephalic (head) Occipital (back of head or base of skull) Acromial (point of shoulder) Vertebral (spinal column) Scapular (shoulder blade) Brachial (arm) Upper extremity Dorsum or dorsal (back) Olecranal (back of elbow) Lumbar (loin) Sacral (between hips) Manus (hand) Gluteal (buttock) Perineal (region between the anus and external genitalia) Lower extremity Femoral (thigh) Popliteal (back of knee) Sural (calf) Calcaneal (heel) Plantar (sole) (b) Posterior Regional Terms: Posterior View Figure 1.7b

  5. Body Orientation and Direction • Superior/inferior • Anterior/posterior • Medial/lateral • Cranial/caudal • Dorsal/ventral • Proximal/distal • Superficial (external)/deep (internal)

  6. Body Planes and Sections • Transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior • Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior • Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right • Midsagittal divides the body exactly down the middle

  7. Body Cavities • Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs • Two body cavities • Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity • Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

  8. Ventral body cavities • The ventral body cavities are lined by a double-layered membrane called serosa or serous membrane. • Visceral layer covers the organs • Parietal layer lines the body wall • A cavity is found between the two layers

  9. Serous Membrane Relationship Figure 1.10a

  10. Thoracic Cavities • The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs. • It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum • Each pleural cavity contains one lung • Visceral and parietal pleura lines the cavity • The mediastinum contain the pericardial cavity for the heart • Visceral and parietal pericardium lines the cavity

  11. Abdominopelvic Cavity • The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum • Visceral • Parietal • Peritoneal cavity between the two layers

  12. Abdominopelvic Quadrants

  13. Abdominal Regions

  14. Other Body Cavities • Oral cavity • Nasal cavity • Orbital cavity • Middle ear cavity • Synovial cavities