The Nile Valley Chapter 2, Section 1, page 38
Chapter 2, Section 1 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • explain how Egyptian civilization arose in the fertile Nile River valley and how natural borders discouraged invasion. • describe how Lower and Upper Egypt united into one kingdom around 3100 B.C. that was organized into social classes.
Settling the Nile – page 39 • Herodotus (5th century B.C.) – Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” • no Nile River = no Egyptian civilization
A Mighty River – page 39 • Nile River • longest river in the world (4,000 miles) • begins as two different rivers the Blue Nile and White Nile • flows northward to the Mediterranean Sea • Upper and Lower Egypt
A Sheltered Land – page 39 • What made ancient Egypt a sheltered land? • cataracts (wild rapids formed by boulders and narrow cliffs) to the south • deserts to the east and west • the delta to the north had no natural harbors • all equals a sort of natural “fence” around Egypt that provided protection
The River People – page 41 • regular flooding • predictable and rarely disastrous • astronomy helped to predict flood • nilometers to measure inundation • provides fertile soil by leaving deposits of silt • Egyptians called their land Kemet – means “black land”
How Did the Egyptians Use the Nile? – page 41 • The Nile provided: • fish and game • drinking water • water for washing • water for agriculture (irrigation and livestock) • transportation (trade) • recreation • soil replenishment
What Were Hieroglyphics? – page 42 • papyrus – a reed plant used in papermakingand boat building • hieroglyphics – a system of writing developed by the ancient Egyptians
A United Egypt – page 43 • kingdoms in Upper and Lower Egypt (4000 B.C.) • King Narmer, aka Menes, credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt (c. 3100 B.C.) • Palette of Narmer
Egypt’s Ruling Families – page 43 • dynasty – a line of rulers that passes power from father to son • Egypt was ruled by 31 dynasties over around 2,800 years • division into “kingdoms” • Old Kingdom • Middle Kingdom • New Kingdom
Family Life – page 46 • women • had more rights than most other early civilizations, e.g. could obtain a divorce, own and pass on property. • children • males learned trade from father • females taught how to run a household from mother • played with toys and played board games
Chapter 2, Section 1 Questions • Why has Egypt been called “the gift of the Nile?” • What factors contribute to Egypt being described as “a sheltered land?” • What did the Egyptians call their land? What does it mean? • Name four of the seven things mentioned that the Nile provided the ancient Egyptians. • What are hieroglyphics? • Who is credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt?
Egypt’s Old Kingdom Chapter 2, Section 2, page 47
Chapter 2, Section 2 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • explain who ruled the Old Kingdom of Egypt. • describe the religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians and the purpose of the pyramids they built.
Old Kingdom Rulers – page 48 • Old Kingdom (c. 2649 B.C. to c. 2150 B.C.) • pharaohs • all powerful kings in ancient Egypt • considered a living god, and the earthly link to the gods • had to carry out certain ceremonies and rituals • his word was law and he was obeyed without question
Egypt’s Religion – page 49 • extremely complex • polytheistic - worshipped many deities (gods and goddesses) • Re, the sun god, was chief among them • controlled forces of nature and human activities • some were associated with animals
Life After Death – page 49 • ideas about a “soul” • belief in a hopeful life after death • Book of the Dead – collection of spells and prayers that Egyptians studied to obtain life after death • concept of judgment
Life After Death – page 49 • embalming and mummification • process to ensure the spirit makes it to the Next World • embalming – process developed by the ancient Egyptians of preserving a person’s body after death • mummification process mummy – body that has been embalmed and wrapped in linen
Mummification Activity After receiving your materials, you should have the following: • an apple quarter • a measure of desiccant • an empty solo cup • a marker • saran wrap • a rubber band Write the following on the outside of your cup: • group names • desiccant/mixture used • starting apple weight 4. Place the saran wrap on top of the cup and secure it with a rubber band. 3. Pour the rest of your desiccant on top of the apple, covering it completely. Bob, Sue, Jim Salt/Epsom Salt 73 grams 2. Lay your apple quarter on its side with a cut side flat on the desiccant. 1. Pour just enough of your desiccant in the cup to cover the bottom.
What’s Inside? Activity • Can you tell what the item is made of? • Can you tell if there is more than one item? • Is it heavy or light? • Does it sound like it is large or small? • Is there anything else you can tell about it?
The Pyramids – page 50 • pyramid – huge stone structure built by the ancient Egyptians to serve as a tomb • offers protection and stores supplies for the journey to the afterlife c. 2550 b.c. c. 2520 b.c. c. 2600 b.c. c. 2600 b.c. c. 2630 b.c. c. 2600 b.c. c. 2490 b.c. c. 2250 b.c.
The Pyramids – page 50 • early pit graves • mastaba – large, mud brick rectangular building used to bury early kings
The Pyramids – page 50 • step pyramids • King Djoser(reigned 2630 B.C. – 2611 B.C.) • built by architect Imhotep • first monumental royal tomb and one of the oldest stone buildings in Egypt
The Pyramids – page 50 • smooth-sided pyramids • 90+ royal pyramids built (including step pyramids)
How Was a Pyramid Built? – page 50 • massive amounts of labor • laborers (farmers) • skilled workers • support • no iron or wheels • blocks of limestone were quarried, moved on boats/sleds/logs • earthen ramps were used to get the blocks up and in place • average weight of blocks: 2.5 tons (5000 lbs.)
The Great Pyramid – page • The Great Pyramid • King Khufu, a.k.a. Cheops, (ruled 2551 B.C. – 2528 B.C.) • 500 feet tall • 2 million blocks at an average of 2.5 tons each • the only Wonder of the Ancient World that remains standing
Extra Credit Assignment – 1st Nine Weeks • Assignment: Construct, paint, and decorate an Egyptian style obelisk, using materials described in the detail worksheet, and turn in a photographic journal of the process. • Due date: No later than Friday, October 2, 2009. • Points value: 20 points added to any test grade or distributed to any number of the four test grades for this nine weeks.
Chapter 2, Section 2 Questions • What were the god-kings of ancient Egypt called? • The collection of spells and prayers dealing with the afterlife is known as the _____. • What is embalming? • Briefly describe the process of ancient Egyptian embalming and mummification. • Who built the Great Pyramid? • How did the construction of pyramids lead to advances in science and mathematics?
The Egyptian Empire Chapter 2, Section 3, page 59
Chapter 2, Section 3 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • describe the culture and peace Egypt experienced during the Middle Kingdom. • describe the growth of Egypt during the New Kingdom and the great monuments constructed during that period.
The Middle Kingdom – page 60 • Middle Kingdom (c. 2050 B.C. to c. 1670 B.C.) • golden age of stability, prosperity, and achievement • Egypt conquered new lands • tribute – forced payments made by one group or nation to another to show obedience or to obtain protection • the arts and literature blossomed • Valley of the Kings begins to be the new burial place for pharaohs • Hyksos – people of western Asia, who conquered the Egyptians and ended the Middle Kingdom period
The New Kingdom – page 61 • Ahmose – king who drove the Hyksos from Egypt and established the New Kingdom period • New Kingdom (c. 1550 B.C. to 1080 B.C.)
A Woman Ruler – page 62 • Hatshepsut • married to her half brother, Thutmose II • served as a regent to her stepson Thutmose III • had herself crowned pharaoh • dressed as a man on occasion • concentrated on building the economy through trade
Expanding the Empire – page 62 • Thutmose III • attempted to erase the memory of Hatshepsut • aggressive wars of conquest • regained control of Nubia • power and wealth
A Religious Reformer – page 64 • Amenhotep IV • Egyptian priests had too much power • attempted to reestablish power by giving Egypt a new religion • declared there was only one god, Aton, the sun disk • changed name to Akhenaton, means “Spirit of Aton” • changes didn’t stick
The Boy King – page 65 • Tutankhamen • around 9 years old when he took the throne • restored the old gods • died after about 9 years on the throne (murdered?) • most well known because of the excavation of his tomb
The End of the New Kingdom – page 65 • Ramses II • one of the greatest of the New Kingdom pharaohs • groomed by his father Seti I for leadership • military efforts • Battle of Kadesh • first recorded peace treaty in history • ambitious builder • Temple at Abū Simbel
Why Were Temples Built? – page 67 • houses for the gods • rituals and offerings • “banks”
Egypt’s Decline and Fall – page 67 • Why? • internal divisions • outside invasion • Libyans • “Sea Peoples” of the Aegean • Kushites (Nubia) • Assyrians • and so on…
Chapter 2, Section 3 Questions • Why has the Middle Kingdom been described as a “golden age of stability, prosperity and achievement?” • What are forced payments made from one group to another to show obedience called? • Who were the Hyksos? What did they do that was important? • What female ruler focused on building the economy through trade? • What did Amenhotep IV try to do during his reign? • True or False: Tutankhamen is best known for his lengthy reign. • Name the temple that Ramses II had constructed that had to be moved in the 1960s to avoid being covered by water.
The Civilization of Kush Chapter 2, Section 4, page 68
Chapter 2, Section 4 Objectives • After this lesson, students will be able to: • discuss how the Nubians settled to the south of Egypt and built a civilization based on farming and trade. • explain how Kush emerged as a leading power after it learned iron-making skills.
Nubia – page 69 • Nubia (later known as Kush) • south of Egypt along the Nile River • probably settled by herders c. 2000 b.c.