Writing a scientific research paper ESPOL Dr. Jan Feyen 30 March 2012
1. Paper format Title Authors, affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • MATERIALS AND METHODS • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS Acknowledgements References Title Authors, affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • MATERIALS AND METHODS • RESULTS • DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS Acknowledgements References
1. Paper format Title Authors, affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • METHODS • 2.1. Study population • 2.2. Intervention program • 2.3. Definitions and measurements • 2.4. Statistical analysis • RESULTS • DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS Acknowledgements References Title Authors, affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • MATERIALS AND METHODS • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS Acknowledgements References
1. Paper format Title Authors, affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • MATERIALS AND METHODS • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS Acknowledgements References Title Authors, affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • 1.1. Research question • 1.2. Justification and use of results • 1.3. Literature review • 1.4. Hypotheses • 1.5. General objectives • 1.6. Specific objectives PROPOSAL FORMAT
1. Paper format Title Affiliation ABSTRACT • INTRODUCTION • MATERIALS AND METHODS • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION • CONCLUSIONS Acknowledgements References • MATERIALS AND METHODS • 2.1. Type of study • 2.2. Population and sample • 2.3. Intervention/experiment • 2.4. Statistical analysis • RESULTS • DISCUSSION • DISSEMINATION • PROJECT TEAM • COST ESTIMATE PROPOSAL FORMAT
1. Paper format Formulación del problema Difusión de los resultados Articulo científico Análisis de la literatura Resultados Discusión Conclusiones Nuevo conocimiento Introducción Pregunta(s) / una o más hipótesis Interpretación y conclusiones Materiales y métodos Análisis de resultados Diseño de investigación
2. Title • Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand. • The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. • The title should be short, avoiding the inclusion of details. • Use generic titles • The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: Effect of Smoking on Academic Performance • Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: Students Who Smoke Get Lower Grades
3. Authors • The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper. • Other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors. • Ask your supervisor's permission before including his/her name as co-author.
4. Affiliation • Claudia Muster1 , Bob Smith2, Richard F. Barrett3* 1 Ion Beam Physics, Paul Scherrer Institute, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland 2 University College, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada 3 Computer Science and Mathematics Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA * Corresponding author: email@example.com
5. Abstract • The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you don't want to dissuade your potential audience from reading your paper. • The abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. • It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaining the necessary concepts. • Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.
5. Abstract Pristine soils of the high Andes mountain region, either under forest or páramo, are very fragile. Changing the land cover by deforestation, aforestation, grazing and farming makes the soils very susceptible to landslides. Additionally land use change affects the soil quality. The research, of which the results are presented in this paper, analyzed the chemical and physical properties of the top and subsoil of pristine soils covered by rainforest, high mountain forest and páramo, and pristine soils subject to recent deforestation, grazing and crop farming. The study was conducted at various locations in the southern Andes region of Ecuador at 2500 m above sea level. The survey enabled deriving chemical and physical indices for measuring the degree of soil degradation. Results revealed that Histosols are more susceptible than Andosols, and whereas the observed physical degradation is mainly limited to the topsoil, chemical alterations were also detected in the deeper horizons. Total number of words: 148 Para la literatura urbana post-estructuralista, las ciudades aparecen como paisajes fracturados en enclaves protegidos y excluyentes, los cuales colonizan y reemplazan los lugares locales. Consecuentemente, se considera que los enclaves turísticos facilitan el control autoritario del espacio urbano, modificando el consumo y reemplazando y suprimiendo la cultura local con "ambientes Disney“. Este artículo plantea que si bien dentro de los enclaves turísticos se intenta -y generalmente se alcanza- un régimen no democrático, directivo y autoritario, incluso en estos espacios el control social no es total; el análisis que aquí se propone respecto de los espacios turísticos revela que la fractura de los espacios de las metrópolis postmodernas puede crear diversidad y diferencia, más que monotonía y uniformidad. Se concluye que, para los visitantes de las ciudades, la distopia urbana predicha por los post-estructuralistas no ha sido aún materializada. Total number of words: 138
6. Keywords • Title paper: Economic growth and human development • Keywords: Human development, economic growth, income distribution, poverty, health, education • Title paper: Heavy metal contaminations in a soil–rice system: Identification of spatial dependence in relation to soil properties of paddy fields • Keywords: Contamination, geostatistics, heavy metals, soil–rice system, spatial relationship • Title paper: Sources of China’s economic growth 1952–1999: incorporating human capital accumulation • Keywords: China, economic growth, human capital, reform
7. Introduction • What question did you ask in your experiment? • Why is it interesting? • The introduction summarizes the relevant literature (please include a sufficient number of references of recent date; e.g. the last decade) so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. • End with the formulation of the hypotheses which you want to approve/disapprove.
7. Introduction • End of the introduction: …………………….. The objective of our study was two-fold: (1) to characterize the implementation of the OBPP in the seven schools, and (2) to compare schools with (N 7) and without (N 3) the OBPP to determine if the program was effective with regard to: (a) reducing student reported victimization (primary outcome), (b) improving student attitudes toward bullying and perceptions of others’ readiness to intervene (key program targets), and (c) improving the general school experience beyond bullying.
8. Literature search • Conocimiento de la idioma inglés • Identificación de la literatura relevante, leer y analizar artículos
8. Literature search • Lo que se necesita? • Conocer las bases de datos. • Palabras clave. • Una arquitectura y conexión a Internet y sistema de servidor por la transferencia de datos de alto capacidad. • Suscripción a bases digitales de revistas. • Contactar el autor correspondiente. • Tener amigos con acceso a bases de datos en el país / extranjero cuando la institución se carece de suscripciones o licencias.
8. Literature search • UCuenca • Bases Datos Generales • Bases Datos Agropecuarias • Bases Datos Salud
8. Literature search • Encuentra artículos • con todas las palabras • con la frase exacta • con al menos una de las palabras • sin las palabras • donde las palabras aparezcan • Author Return articles written by e.g., "PJ Hayes" or McCarthy • Publication Return articles published in e.g., J Biol Chem or Nature • Date Return articles published between e.g., 1996 - 2001
8. Literature search • SCIRUS for scientific information (http://www.scirus.com)
8. Literature search Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)
8. Literature search 388 pages
8. Literature search RePEc (Research Papers in Economics) is a collaborative effort of hundreds of volunteers in 75 countries to enhance the dissemination of research in economics.
8. Literature search • ISI-Web of Knowledge (http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/) • Acceso a revistas específico (necesite login & contraseña) • Water Resources Research (WRR) (http://www.agu.org/journals/wr/) • Vadose Zone Journal (VZJ) (http://vzj.scijournals.org/) • Soil Science Society of America Journal (SSSAJ) (http://soil.scijournals.org/)
8. Literature search • Open access journals • Science Journal Publication (http://www.sjpub.org/) • Science Journal of Medicine and Clinical Trials, Agricultural Research, Microbiology, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Physics, Mathematics & Statistics, Pure & Applied Chemistry, Environmental Engineering Research, Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Civil Engineering & Architecture, Chemical Engineering Research, Economics, Business Management, Psychology, Sociology & Anthropology (17 journals). • Scientific Research Publishing (http://www.scirp.org) • SCIRP is an academic publisher of open access journals. It also publishes academic books and conference proceedings. SCIRP currently has more than 150 open access journals in the areas of science, technology, and medicine JWARP.
8. Literature search • Open access journals • SCIRP - Journal of Water Research & Protection (JWARP). Open access journal, international, peer-reviewed journal publishing articles related to water research and protection (http://www.scirp.org/Journal/jwarp/) • Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Open access to 7449 journals, 3582 journals searchable at article level, and 745680 articles (http://www.doaj.org/) • Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development (JARD). Open access journal, international, peer-reviewed journal publishing an overview of aquaculture research & development (http://omicsonline.org/jardhome.php)
8. Literature search • OMICS Publishing group (http://omicsonline.org/)
8. Literature search • OMICS Publishing group: E-mail alert
8. Literature search • Open Access Journals Search Engine (OAJSE). • An Open Access E-Journal Portal of Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University (India) (http://oajse.com/index.html) • Bentham Open Access (BENTHAM OPEN) • Publish over 230 peer-reviewed open access journals. These free-to-view online journals cover all major disciplines of science, technology, medicine and social sciences (http://benthamscience.com/open/) • Wiley Open Access • Publishes authoritative peer reviewed open access journals across many research disciplines. (Brain and Behavior, Cancer Medicine, ChemistryOpen,Ecology and Evolution, Food and Energy Security, MicrobiologyOpen, Journal of the American Heart Association) (http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/view/index.html)
8. Literature search • MDPI is a publisher of peer-reviewed, open access journals (http://www.mdpi.com/) 73 journals, among them a journal on: Agriculture, Agronomy, Applied Sciences, Atmosphere, Biology, Forest, ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, Geosciences, Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, Membranes, Remote Sensing, Water • MDPI delivers 1.5 million webpage views and over 130'000 full-text downloads per month.
8. Literature search • MDPI (http://www.mdpi.com/)
8. Literature search • MDPI: E-mail alert
8. Literature search • ArticleProcessing Charge (APC) for accepted articles. • Journal of WATER: 300 CHF (± $330) for processing, and 250 CHF (± $275) for English edition. • E-mail alerts: http://www.mdpi.com/user/subscriptions/
9. Materials and methods • How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. • If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.
9. Materials and methods • Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. ("In a preliminary study, I observed the owls for one week, and found that 73 % of their locomotor activity occurred during the night, and so I conducted all subsequent experiments between 11 pm and 6 am.") • Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain?
10. Results • This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in the Discussion. • You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten. Make a selection of the most relevant results. • Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.