September 12, 2008 • DO-NOWBased on your earlier HW assignment, list the key players and the events you remember from the Span-Am War. Define (in-depth):Imperialism • OBJECTIVESTo be able to answer: What were the main events in the Spanish American War? • How does this war reflect the sense of imperialism • AGENDAHomework checkShare our examples of Y.J.Notes on Span-Am War“Exit Slips” • DO-LATEROn a ½ sheet of paper, provide 2 questions, concerns, needs to clarify, praises, etc. regarding this week of class. Questions and comments will be addressed on Monday
Introduction to Spanish-American War “A Splendid Little War” John Hay, Secretary of State, 1898
Background: • Who? • Spain vs. America • Where? • Phillipines, Cuba (Spain’s Colonies)
Background: USA Cuba The Philippines
Why? • Help give freedom to Spain’s colonies!Was this the US’s sole reason for becoming involved?
Spain’s Re-concentration Policy What? • Spain was fighting a guerilla war and needed to separate “good” (in favor of Spanish rule) from “bad” (associated with rebellion) guys • Cuban civilians were forced into government run concentration camps by Spanish instated governor, Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler Why? How did it lead to war? • Atrocities are published in US newspapers, using “Yellow Journalism” to compete for sales.
General Weyler “The Butcher” • In 1896, the Spanish sent "The Butcher," to Cuba • To prevent the insurrectos • Weyler built concentration camps in which he imprisoned a large portion of the population • Under the harsh and unsanitary conditions in the concentration camps, • Cuban prisoners died rapidly, especially from disease
American Economic Interests What? • Protecting their economic interests • Many of Cuba’s sugar plantations were owned by Americans Why? How did it lead to war? • Made Americans more likely to help out Cuba
“Yellow Journalists” What? • Make more $ if they keep you scared and interested • Newspaper created highly biased, exaggerated stories Why? How did it lead to war? • Made Americans want war! The masses pressured the leaders for war. Everyone a hawk.
Recall: • Define Yellow Journalism. • What role did it play in the Spanish American War?
Sinking of the Maine in Havana Harbor What? • USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor • Most Americans believe it was Spain’s fault • 1976 US Navy analyzed the sunken ship, decided that the hull blew OUT not IN How did it lead to war? • Spark that started the war • You could say “9/11” effect • “Remember the Maine! To hell with Spain!”
Thinking Slide: Which of these do you think was most responsible for the nation going to war?
Analysis: Headline of the Maine Explosion • “Maine Explosion Caused by Bomb or Torpedo?”2/17/1898 New York World
William McKinley, Jr. (1843-1901) • 25th President • Wanted to avoid war in CubaLike his predecessor, Grover Cleveland • Yellow journalism and public supported war • (Maine explosion Fed, 1898) • In April 1898, President McKinley abandoned his failed diplomatic efforts and asked Congress for permission to intervene in Cuba.
More than McKinley bargained for: • April 1898, finally asks Congress to authorize invasion of Cuba • Congress approves, AND ALSO create a resolution recognizing Cuban independence from Spain. • Spain declares war on the US, April 24, 1989
Manila Bay, Philippines • What Happened at Manila Bay? • Surprise naval attack by the US sunk the crumbling Spanish Navy • Made Americans feel very superior
Commodore George Dewey • First Action: • May 1,— Commodore Dewey and his Asiatic Squadron defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay • During and after the war, George Dewey became one of the war's most celebrated heroes
Rough Riders • Who were the Rough Riders? Who was their leader? • Teddy Roosevelt resigns as Asst Secy of the Navy to lead a “Cowboy Calvary” • Brought his own photographer • Teddy’s popularity from this leads to his becoming v.p. and president
TR’s Rough Riders • What famous Battle did they participate in? • The charge on San Juan Hill • One of the only land battles in Cuba • African Americans also helped but get no credit
Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy • “I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one” • First Volunteer Cavalry, nicknamed the "Rough Riders.“
Results • US defeats Spain & becomes a world power • Teddy Roosevelt elected Vice President in 1900 and becomes President in 1901 when McKinley is shot • US must decide what to do about Spain’s former colonies • (Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba)
Thinking Slide Do you think the war was a good idea?