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IRAN 1941 - Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war PowerPoint Presentation
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IRAN 1941 - Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war

IRAN 1941 - Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war

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IRAN 1941 - Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war

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  1. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime

  2. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15)

  3. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15)

  4. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15)

  5. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46)

  6. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46)

  7. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46)

  8. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46)

  9. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46)

  10. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46)

  11. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108)

  12. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130)

  13. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130)

  14. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136)

  15. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136)

  16. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  17. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  18. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay 1953- Fears of Iran nationalizing its oil 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  19. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay 1953- Fears of Iran nationalizing its oilBr. Petrol (BP) convinces US that Iran may go commun. 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  20. TURKEY • SU demands Turk. (pro- • Ger., but officially neutral) let • navy through Dardanelles •  Turkey refused  • Dec., 1945- Sov's seize N • Iran decl. indep. Azerbaijan & • mass 12 div’s on Turk border •  US sent battleship Missouri • to bring back dead dipl’s body •  SU eventually backed down • IRAN • 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP •  Joint occup. by Br. & SU • until after war • 3/46- Br withdrew but SU • stayed "pending exam. of the • situation" • US went to Security Counc. • Gromyko walked out • SU back down & pull out • 1953- Fears of nationalizing • Iranian oil •  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & • put in Shah Reza Pahlavi •  Brutal US backed regime USSR hurt badly, but has world’s largest army W. Eur’s mad at leaders who had blundered into Depr. & WWIIRising pop. of Communism US has A-bomb & $, but public is still isolationist Stalin suspicious of U.S. U.S. suspicious of Stalin Long delay to launch D-Day Stalin takes over of E. Eur. Churchill’s “Iron” Curtain Speech Soviet reaction vs. his speech Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan Stalin tries to sabotage M. Plan FC.138 THE START OF THE COLD WAR (1945-48) End of World War II (FC.136) Rus. Rev Hostility b/w Capit. West & Comm. SU (FC.130) Stalin’s growing power in 1930s (FC.130)

  21. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay 1953- Fears of Iran nationalizing its oilBr. Petrol (BP) convinces US that Iran may go commun. Br. & CIA overthrow Iran. Govt. 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  22. The CIA coup to replace the ultra-nationalist Iranian prime minister, Mohammed Mossadegh with the previously ousted Shah involved hiring Iranians to pose as Communist agitators to alarm the American public and bombing the home of a Muslim cleric to discredit Mossadegh as pro-communist. The American in charge of ensuring the stability of the regime was General Norman Schwarzkopf, father of his namesake who commanded the Desert Storm campaign in 1991. Mossadegh uses a ladder to escape, but is eventually arrested Pro-shah troops storm Mossadegh’s residence Mossadegh under armed guard

  23. Mossadegh’s military trial for treason Mossadegh, 74, is sentenced to 3 years in prison and later held under house arrest at his home. He died in 1967 of cancer. Mossadegh ignores the trial & takes a nap.

  24. Ironically, Mossadegh had been chosen as Time’s Man of the Year for 1951, although probably for the wrong reasons (i.e., “oiling the wheels of chaos”). This distinction had also been given to Hitler (1938) and that little gremlin from the Kremlin, Josef Stalin (1942).

  25. The shah ruled over one of the most brutal regimes of the Cold War era, helping make the US very unpopular in the Muslim world.

  26. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay 1953- Fears of Iran nationalizing its oilBr. Petrol (BP) convinces US that Iran may go commun. Br. & CIA overthrow Iran. Govt. Brutal regime of Shah Pahlavi backed by US to keep SU contained. 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  27. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) 1979- Islamic Rev. led by Ayatollah Khoemeini overthrows shah & establishes radical Shi’ite state that is very anti-Western 1953- Fears of Iran nationalizing its oilBr. Petrol (BP) convinces US that Iran may go commun. Br. & CIA overthrow Iran. Govt. Brutal regime of Shah Pahlavi backed by US to keep SU contained. 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil & commun’s 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138)

  28. In 1979, a revolution would replace the unpopular shah with a radical Muslim regime led by the Ayatollah Khomeini, another winner of Time’s Man of the Year award.

  29. The Iran-Iraq War (1980-88)

  30. The war between Iran and Iraq can be seen as another chapter in the Arab-Persian conflict spanning the centuries since the time of Mohammed. Border disputes dating from European colonial partitions after World War I also played a part, as did Saddam Hussein’s own ambitions, fears and miscalculations. He hoped to unify the Arab world against the Iranians and replace them as the major power in the Persian Gulf. At the same time, the Iranian Revolution in 1979 threatened to upset the delicate Sunni-Shi’ite balance in Iraq, which was 60% Shi’ite and might join Iran against Saddam’s brutal and secular regime. Exacerbating matters was the fact that Saddam had expelled the Ayatollah Khomeini from Iraq in 1977. Khomeini vowed revenge after he seized power in Iran.

  31. Geopolitically, Iraq was also in a precarious position since Iran controlled most of the outlets to the Persian Gulf. More specifically, Saddam claimed Iraq’s share of the Shat al Arab, the 200 km. waterway between Iran and Iraq that led to the Gulf, extended to Iran’s shore. Iran, following an agreement in 1975, said the border ran down the middle of the channel.

  32. The time seemed right militarily for Saddam, since Iraqi intelligence reported that Khomeini’s religious revolution had purged the Iranian army of many of its best officers for ideological reasons, replacing them with religious mullahs with little or no military experience. In addition, Iran’s bad relations with the US meant that it could not get spare parts for the American made equipment the shah had built up in the 1970s. By contrast, Saddam had built up an army of 190,000 men supplied by its friendly neighbor, the Soviet Union. In 1979, relations between the two nations especially deteriorated after an assassination attempt on Iraqi foreign minister, Tariq Aziz, triggered the expulsion from Iraq of Iranian born Shi’ites. Border incidents increased until September 22, 1980 when Saddam attacked. Iran’s Revolutionary Guard

  33. FC.146C. IRAN (c.1800-2006) IRAN 1941- Br infl. & profits for BP  Joint occup. by Br. & SU until after war 3/46- Br withdrew but SU stayed "pending exam. of the situation" US went to Security Counc. Gromyko walked out SU back down & pull out 1953- Fears of nationalizing Iranian oil  Br & CIA overthrow govt. & put in Shah Reza Pahlavi  Brutal US backed regime Safavid Dyn. (1501-c.1800) replaced bycorrupt Qajar Dyn. (1800-1925) Mounting debts Br. banks gain increasing control countries’ economies through loans which govt’s cannot repay Concessions Br. control whole sectors of Iran’s ec. (e.g., RR’s) Rising Shi’ite discontent & debts Less ability to repay Growing influence of & agitation for nationalism & liberal ideas in Iran after 1900 1979- Islamic Rev. led by Ayatollah Khoemeini overthrows shah & establishes radical Shi’ite state that is very anti-Western 1953- Fears of Iran nationalizing its oilBr. Petrol (BP) convinces US that Iran may go commun. Br. & CIA overthrow Iran. Govt. Brutal regime of Shah Pahlavi backed by US to keep SU contained. 1946- Br leaves, but SU stays Dipl. Pressure from US SU withdraws 1941- Joint occup. by SU & Br. to protect oil supplies, commun’s, & Br profits Zoroastrian belief rulers must rule justly or be overthrown (FC.15) Ind. Rev. W. Eur’s tremendous tech. & econ. power (FC.122) Persian Emp. Proud & indep. Iranian history & culture (FC.15) Iranian Shi’ites’ fervent demands for social justice (FC.46) Spreading infl. of liberalism & nat’lism (FC.108) Spreading infl. of Rus. Revolution (FC.130) World War II (FC.136) World War II (FC.136) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Start of Cold War (FC.138) Sunni-Shi’ite split that largely breaks down along Arab-Iranian lines (FC.38) Sunni-Shi’ite split that largely breaks down along Arab-Iranian lines (FC.38)

  34. Iraq on the Offensive (1980-82) The initial attack was an air strike, hoping to destroy Iran’s US supplied jets much like the Israelis had done to their opponents in 1967. However, the strike failed in its mission, and Iranian jets struck back against Iraqi targets. Despite this failure, the Iraqi land assault quickly overran Iranian towns, especially in the South near Basra. As this rapid advance continued Iranian president, Bani Sadr, released from jail pilots thought to be loyal to the shah. With their planes adequately piloted, the Iranians blunted the Iraqi offensive. Early in the war, American planes piloted by well trained Iranians proved superior to their Iraqi counterparts flying Russian Mig 23s. Below: an F14B Iranian jet supplied by the US when the shah had been in power.

  35. By November 10, 1980, Iraqi forces controlled the Shatt al Arab and an 80 mile wide swath of territory inside Iran. In reaction, Iran called for 200,000 volunteers and recalled some men from the shah’s old army. Iran’s religiously devoted, but poorly armed and trained, soldiers stopped the main Iraqi advance in the south, but at a frightful cost. Many Iranian volunteers even carried burial shrouds, anticipating martyrdom. Iranian commandos and jets also attacked Iraqi oil installations and pipelines to destroy its economic ability to wage war. Saddam hoped the 3 million Arabs in southern Iran would join his cause, but they fought for the Iranian regime instead. Similarly, later Iranian attempts to rally Iraqi Shi’ites to their cause would fail. With their offensive stalled, Iraqi troops dug in to hold their gains. Below left: An Iraqi soldier with an assault rifle Below right: Iranian soldiers in a trench reminiscent of World War I

  36. Iran’s first major offensive failed largely for political reasons. Iranian president, Bani Sadr (below), was locked in a power struggle with the religious leaders. Therefore, he courted the old regular army’s support and launched a disastrous offensive that failed largely due to his own military inexperience. Consequently, Khomeini ousted Sadr from power, made peace with the army which now cooperated with his volunteer militia, known as the Basji. This cooperation led to two major Iranian victories in late 1981 and early 1982. However, religious ideology, superior manpower, and the steady depletion of its American-made equipment without access to spare parts, led to the Iranian tactic of human wave assaults that would cost hundreds of thousands of Iranians their lives. Outnumbered Iraqi troops were much more reluctant to take casualties in such offensives.

  37. Iran resurgent (1982-84) In March, 1982, Iran’s regular army and militia launched a major offensive that pushed the Iraqis out of Iran and onto the defensive. In June, Saddam withdrew all his forces into Iraq, hoping to end the war. However, Iran’s religious leaders were back in control of the military operations and refused to make peace. In July, Iran launched Operation Ramadan on Iraqi. However, instead of using artillery to clear the way, they sent in human waves of barely trained soldiers (such as the one seen below), some as young as age 9, to clear minefields for their tanks. Much in the style of World War I, these efforts gained minimal territory at horrific cost.

  38. In late 1982, the Soviet Union, fearing the spread of Iran’s Islamic revolution to its Muslim republics, heavily reinforced Iraq with new weapons which it used to restore its defensive lines. Throughout 1983, Iran launched human wave assaults that, once again, made minimal gains while taking staggering losses. By the end of the year, and estimated 120,000 Iranians and 60,000 Iraqis had been killed. In 1984, Iraq bought more equipment from Russian and France. Although mostly on the defensive, Saddam launched air raids on Iranian cities and chemical attacks on Iranian forces. The US helped in the latter by providing Iraq detailed information on Iranian positions. Below: an Iraqi “siegebot” designed to shell hardened Iranian targets. It disappeared after the Gulf War in 1991. Rumor has it that we have it.

  39. Stalemate (1984-7) By the end of 1984, Iran had lost an estimated 300,000 killed and wounded, while Iraq had lost 250,000. Western military analysts pointed out the inefficient use of modern weapons on both sides. In stead of using tanks to spearhead assaults, they dug them in and used them as stationary artillery. Modern sighting technology was rarely used, reducing tank and artillery accuracy to World War II levels. Both sides would also abandon disabled heavy equipment, because they lacked the training or skills to repair them. Neither army coordinated movements between different units, while officers lacked the training and initiative to take action before referring back to central command for orders. Because of all these factors, the war ground to a stalemate with neither side able to dislodge the other. An Iraqi tank

  40. Desperate to gain an edge, both sides launched air, artillery and missile attacks on each other’s cities, while Iraq continued use of mustard and nerve gas against Iranian positions. In 1986, the UN formally charged Iraq with violating the 1925 Geneva Protocol that banned using such weapons. Saddam tried denying their use, but chemical weapons victims flown to European hospitals thoroughly discredited him. Chemical warfare led to an estimated 10,000 casualties by 1986. In 1988, Saddam again used chemical weapons, this time against his own rebellious Kurdish subjects who had helped Iranian forces in the North. The Iranian airforce Above: an American built F-4 jet Right: an American built F-16

  41. By 1987, Iraq had constructed a sophisticated defensive network along its southern border with Iran. However, a successful Iranian offensive in the North forced Iraq to adopt a more offensive strategy. By now, Saddam had learned to entrust his officers with more initiative. The resulting improvement in Iraqi effectiveness and change to an offensive strategy now neutralized Iran’s military advantages. Gradually, the Iraqi air force, being constantly resupplied by its allies, dominated the skies against the Iranian planes which were suffering increasingly from the lack of spare parts. By late 1987, Iran had lost the ability to mount effective offensives against the massively resupplied Iraqi forces. Below: an Iraqi tank.

  42. Below: Iranian artillery. At first Iran had the weapons stockpiled by the Shah. But as those stockpiles were used up, the Iranians had to buy US & Soviet weapons at highly inflated prices. It was in this context that the Iran Contra scandal took place, where the Reagan administration gave arms to its enemy Iran, who in turn would fund the anti-communist Contras in Central America, a group whose funding the US Congress had cut off.

  43. The Pasdaran, Iran’s Revolutionary Guard very much resembled the French Revolution’s National Guard. Both were fervent, but poorly trained and equipped, and at odds with the regular army of the old regime.

  44. The morale factor As the war ground on, both governments had to work hard to keep morale and enlistment up. Iran probably had the easier task, since the revolution was popular with at least a good part of the population. Therefore, it could stage mass public rallies to encourage enlistment (right). Saddam used his ever-growing personality cult to instill loyalty and fear in his people. On one billboard (below), he had himself portrayed as a mighty Babylonian king hunting lions from a chariot, thus drawing on Iraq’s proud heritage of being the cradle of civilization.

  45. More examples of Saddam Hussein’s personality cult

  46. “They chant ‘Allahu Akbar’ and they keep coming, and we keep shooting, sweeping our 50 millimeter machine guns around like sickles. My men are eighteen, nineteen, just a few years older than these kids. I’ve seen them crying, and at times the officers had to kick them back to their guns. Once we had Iranian kids on bikes cycling toward us, and my men all started laughing, and then these kids started lobbing their hand grenades and we stopped laughing and started shooting.”--Iraqi officer One of the more mind-boggling aspects of the Iran-Iraq War was the Basji, Iran’s youth brigade of boys as young as 12 (although some lied about their ages). Typically, they were used as human mine sweepers and cannon fodder in Iran’s human wave assaults, each with a piece of white cloth pinned to his uniform (representing his impending martyrdom) and a plastic key around his neck that Khomeini had personally given each of them to symbolize his assured entry into Paradise.

  47. Wars of the cities (1984-88) By 1984, the war had ground down to a World War I style stalemate of Iranian human wave assaults unsupported by tanks or planes being mowed down by Iraqi forces dug in against such attacks. Iran’s mullahs (religious leaders), determined to overthrow repeatedly Saddam Hussein’s regime, repeatedly rebuffed his offers of a ceasefire. Therefore, he adopted a new strategy of attacking Iran’s cities from the air, with Iran replying in kind. Thus began the first of five “wars of the cities” where Iraqi and Iranian civilians now became legitimate targets on the frontline. However, this strategy failed to forestall Iranian offensives or bring either side to its knees. KhorramshahrIran'83