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Chapter Six: The Rise of the Biblical Tradition

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  1. Chapter Six:The Rise of the Biblical Tradition Culture and Values, 8th Ed. Cunningham and Reich and Fichner-Rathus

  2. Timeline for Ancient Rome 509 BCE – Rome overthrows the Etruscan Kings 275 BCE – Rome controls the whole of Italy 146 BCE – Rome defeats Carthage 150 BCE – Rome takes control of Macedonia and Greece 44 BCE – Rome conquers Gaul (France) 31 BCE – Augustus defeats Mark Anthony and Cleopatra in Egypt 14 CE – Death of Augustus 98 – 117 CE – Trajan rules. Roman Empire at its largest. 312 – 337 CE – Constantine rules. Beginning of the end….

  3. Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. - C.E. 476) • The year of Four Emperors 68-69 AD • Nerva and the “Five Good Emperors” (A.D. 96–180) • The Severan Dynasty (A.D. 193–235) • The Crisis of the Roman Empire (A.D. 235–284) • Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (A.D. 284–305) • Constantine and Christianity • Julian, Theodosius, and the Later Roman Empire (A.D. 337–1453)

  4. The End of the Roman Empire Gradual decline and political disunity Insufficient army / use of mercenary troops Increased taxes, decreased value of money Impossibility of trade Emperor Diocletian (284-305) Emperor Constantine (306-337)

  5. Constantine the Great. 325–26 CE. Height of head 8’ 6”.

  6. Late Roman Art and Architecture Last great Roman Imperial buildings Basilica Nova Abandonment of Classical ideals Role of Christianity

  7. 2000 bce –1260 bce Age of Hebrew Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (r. 1800–1600) Hebrews in Egypt until Exodus in 1280 1260 bce –1000 bce Hebrews begin to penetrate land of Canaan Reign of Saul first king of Israel 1040–1000 1000 bce –922 bce Reign of King David 1000–961 Reign of King Solomon 961–922; height of ancient Israel’s cultural power 922 bce –587 bce Civil war after Solomon’s death splits Israel; prophetic period begins Northern Israeli kingdom destroyed by Assyria in 721 • Mesopotamia • Sumerian (3500-2350 B.C.E.) • Semitic (2350-612 B.C.E.) • Ancient Egypt31 dynasties / 4 groups: • Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.E.) • Middle Kingdom (1990 B.C.E.) • New Kingdom (1570 B.C.E.) • Late Period (1185-500 B.C.E.) • Timeline: Ancient Greece • 900-600 BCE: Geometric Period • 600-480 BCE: The Archaic Period • 480-323 BCE: The Classical Period • 323-31/30 BCE: The Hellenistic Period

  8. 587 bce – 63bce Jews driven into captivity in Babylonia in 587 King Cyrus allows Jews to return to Jerusalem in 539 Dedication of Second Temple in 516 Conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 63 bce – 381ce Rome conquers Jerusalem in 63 Reign of King Herod 37–4 Herod Birth of Jesus ca. 6 Titus sacks Jerusalem in 70 Reign of Emperor Constantine 307–327 Edict of Milan 313 Founding of Constantinople Christianity declared state religion • Greece • Classical period (500-323 B.C.E.) • The Hellenistic Period 323-31 bce • Rome • Monarchy/ Etruscan Age (700-89 B.C.E.) • Republican Rome (509-27 B.C.E.) • Imperial Rome (27 B.C.E. - C.E. 337)

  9. Imperial Rome (31 B.C.E. - C.E. 476) • The year of Four Emperors 68-69 AD • Nerva and the “Five Good Emperors” (A.D. 96–180) • The Severan Dynasty (A.D. 193–235) • The Crisis of the Roman Empire (A.D. 235–284) • Diocletian and the Tetrarchy (A.D. 284–305) • Constantine and Christianity • Julian, Theodosius, and the Later Roman Empire (A.D. 337–1453)

  10. Abraham • Age of Hebrew Patriarchs • Hebrew Bible • Judaism, Christianity, Islam

  11. Biblical History • Biblical tradition + Graeco-Roman Culture • Children of Israel, Israelites, Jews, Hebrews • Period of the Patriarchs • Period of the Exodus • Period of the Conquest • The United Monarchy • Divided Kingdom and Exile • The Return

  12. 6.2 Spoils of Jerusalem (detail from the Arch of Titus), 81ce. Rome, Italy

  13. The Hebrew Bible and Its Message • “Bible” Byblos • The Law, the Prophets, the Writings • Hebrew canon (C.E. 90) • Septuagint-deuterocanonical books • Moral guide, ethical and religious stability • Not a philosophical treatise

  14. Basic Motifs of the Bible • Biblical Monotheism • God exists before the world • God pronounces creation as “good” • Humans are the crown of creation • God deeply involved in the world

  15. Basic Motifs of the Bible • The Covenant • “I will be your God; you will be my people” • Testament = Promise • Renewed covenant = New Testament

  16. Basic Motifs of the Bible • Ethics • Moral code for individuals and society • Ten Commandments • Prohibitions, positive commands • Prophetic writings • Critics of social injustice, defenders of poor • Reminders of the covenant

  17. Basic Motifs of the Bible • Models and types • Events, stories, characters as models • Book of Job • Contemporary impact of biblical tradition • Literature • Art • Social institutions

  18. Dura-Europos • Evidence of religious buildings—early Christian meeting house and synagogue • Complex religious existence—pagan temples and homes • Artistic mingling of Eastern and Roman styles

  19. Baptistery wall painting: Christ Healing the Paralyticca. A.D. 232Paint on plasterObject: 145 x 88 cm (57 1/16 x 34 5/8 in.)Yale-French Excavations at Dura-Europos

  20. 6.6 Fresco of Moses and the Exodus, from the Dura-Europos synagogue. Damascus, Syria

  21. The Beginnings of Christianity • Life of Jesus • Gospels • Prophetic tradition of Jesus • Parables, Beatitudes • Jesus as Christ, the Messiah • Significance of resurrection

  22. Christianity Spreads • Saul of Tarsus (Paul) • Tireless missionary • Theological letters • Early martyrs—Vibia Perpetua • Social, religious factors for growth • Peace, facility of travel, koine, audience • Emphasis on salvation, freedom • No class distinction

  23. Christian Persecution • Nero’s Circus • Claudius, Decius, Valerian, Diocletian • Christians as traitors to the state • Refusal to express pietàs • Apologists • Tertullian (155/160-225) • Justin Martyr (100-165) • Emperor Constantine

  24. Christian Expansion • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/maps/christ.html

  25. Early Christian Art • Catacombs, underground cemeteries • Frescoes • Salvation; Communion; Virgin and Child • Glass and Sculpture • Christ as Good Shepherd, glass disks • Carved sarcophagi • Inscriptions • Name, date of death, decorative symbol

  26. 6.7 The Good Shepherd, early 4th century ce. Catacomb of Saints Pietro and Marcellino, Rome, Italy

  27. Bowl Base with Old and New Testament Scenes, ca. 350–400Byzantine, said to have been found in 1715 in the Roman catacomb of Saint CallistoGlass, gold leaf

  28. Sarcophagus with Scenes from the Lives of Saint Peter and Christ, early 300s (with modern restoration)Roman Marble

  29. 6.9 Chi-rho monogram, 4th century ce. From a wall painting in a Roman villa, Lullingstone, Kent, England. Detail of wall painting, 90 cm, diameter of inner circle. The British Museum, London, United Kingdom.

  30. 6.8 Anchor with entwined fish, 4th century ce. Mosaic from the Catacombs of Hermes, Sousse, Tunisia

  31. The Hinton St Mary MosaicDorset, England, Roman Britain, 4th century AD

  32. Asiatic garland sarcophagus, Mid-Imperial, Severan period, 200–225 A.D. Roman Marble

  33. Early Christian Architecture • Basilica-Style Churches • Current site of St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican) • Church of the Holy Sepulcher (Jerusalem) • Jesus’ burial site

  34. Floor plan old St. Peter’s Basilica

  35. Early Christian Music • From Jewish traditions • Chanting sacred texts • Professional Chorus vs. Single Cantor • Greek doctrine of ethos • Instrumental music = unsuitable • Standardization of vocal music • Responsorial, antiphonal

  36. Chapter Six: Discussion Questions • Discuss contemporary examples that illustrate the permeation of the biblical tradition in our culture. • Explain why Nero and other Roman emperors were unwilling to tolerate Christianity. From a political standpoint, was the severity of punishment inflicted on Christians warranted? Why or why not? • Consider the archeological findings of Dura-Europos. In what ways does history over-simplify past events? In two thousand years, what will future generations assume about our culture, religions, and religious tolerance? Explain.