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The Planet Mars

The Planet Mars

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The Planet Mars

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  1. Chapter 9 The Planet Mars Survey of Astronomy

  2. Chapter 9 The Red Planet Mars Survey of Astronomy

  3. Chapter 10 Survey of Astronomy

  4. Chapter 9 Early observers did not have photography and had to draw what they saw. Survey of Astronomy W. R. Dawes (1864 – 1865) Giovanni Schiaparelli (1888) Christian Huygens (1659)

  5. Chapter 9 In the years from about 1890 to about 1910 Percival Lowell became enamored with the observations of Schiapereli. Canalifor him were canals. He believed in canals and the intelligent life forms needed to dig them. He spent many years talking and writing about them. Percival Lowell Survey of Astronomy

  6. Chapter 8 Mars Facts Dist from Sun=1.5+ or app. 1.6 AU (T-B) Year = 1.88 Earth years Sol (Mars day) = 24h 37 m Axis inclination = 25+ deg Dia = .533 Earth dia Surface gravity = .38 Earth Surface Temp = -140 deg C to 20 deg C Survey of Astronomy

  7. Chapter 10 Comparison of the Atmospheres of the Terrestrial Planets Earth Venus Mars N2 0.79 2 3 x 10-4 O2 0.20 < 0.001 10-7 Ar 0.01 0.005 2 x 10-4 CO2 0.0003 64 0.009 H2O ~ 0.02 ~ 0.01 ~10-6 Total 1.00 90 0.01 Survey of Astronomy

  8. Chapter 9 The interior of Mars has not been studied by seismic waves. Surface clues indicate that the interior as shown is likely correct. Over time the interior has cooled and vulcanism has ceased. Survey of Astronomy

  9. Chapter 9 Surface Features The surface of Mars has been imaged and mapped at least as thoroughly as the Earth. No liquid water has been found although there is much evidence that there has been standing and flowing water in the past. The Southern Hemisphere is somewhat higher in elevation and covered with craters appearing much like The Moon. The lower Northern Hemisphere is much more earthlike. It has giant volcanoes and canyons. Survey of Astronomy

  10. Chapter 10 This topo-graphical map of the Tharsis Rise shows giant volcanoes, a giant canyon, apparent dry river beds and a dry ocean Tharsis Bulge Survey of Astronomy

  11. Chapter 9 If this giant volcano were on Earth is would stand three times higher than Mount Everest and would completely cover the State of Utah Olympus Mons Survey of Astronomy

  12. Chapter 9 An image of a dry watershed An image of a dry river bed Survey of Astronomy A topographic map of the mouth of a dry river entering a dry ocean

  13. Chapter 9 A canyon land region called South Candor Survey of Astronomy A panoramic view of a rocky rolling valley

  14. Chapter 9 The North Polar Cap seems to have water ice with much dry ice covering it. There is much information in the apparent layers that have accumulated over eons. Survey of Astronomy The South Polar Cap seems to have less water ice and less layering.

  15. Chapter 9 Mars • Today • Cold • Dry • Anciently • Warm • Wet Survey of Astronomy

  16. Chapter 9 Robots to Mars From the Mariner Probes in the early ‘60s to the extremely successful Phoenix Lander 2010 mankind has sent variety of robot orbiters and landers to prepare the way for a future manned mission to the exotic Red Planet. Survey of Astronomy

  17. Chapter 9 Viking Program • Two Identical Systems • Orbiter • Lander • Mid 70’s • Search for Living Life • Chemical not biological results • Red color is iron oxide Survey of Astronomy

  18. Chapter 9 A view from the Viking 2 Lander in summer and winter. The occasional frost layer only lasts until Sun up. Survey of Astronomy

  19. Chapter 9 The Mars Global Surveyor took images in visible and infrared of the entire planet every day for one full Mars year. Among its discoveries was this of recent gullies Survey of Astronomy

  20. Chapter 9 One of the trickiest parts of the Mars Exploration is actually getting the rovers to Mars in working condition. Imagine trying to drop a sophisticated robot about 11-12 stories without breaking it (or even dropping an ordinary DVD player) Survey of Astronomy

  21. Chapter 9 When the Pathfinder lander and the Sojourner rover arrived in 1997 they began the era of faster, cheaper spacecraft. Sojourner can be seen examining the rock “Yogi” Survey of Astronomy

  22. Chapter 9 The next gener-ation Rovers were two, called the Spirit and Opportunity. Survey of Astronomy

  23. Chapter 9 Spirit’s landing place was similar to the Vikings’; this is a 360° panoramic view Survey of Astronomy Spirit View west from the Columbia Hills

  24. Chapter 9 This is a view from Opportunity down into Victoria Crater. It spent nearly a full Earth year finding the best way down into the crater and this is it. Opportunity has now left Victoria Crater in search of another crater to explore. Survey of Astronomy

  25. Chapter 9 Here we see the robotic arm at work. It cleans the rock, examines it then analyses it for elements. Survey of Astronomy This is the Instrument complex which the RAT, imager and spectrographs

  26. Chapter 10 Intrepid Geologists Discoveries • Adventures - Stuck in sand dune • Covered by dust in a storm • Uncovered by a whirl wind • Lived through a long Mars winter • Are still going strong (four times as long as expected) • Layering as if by water deposit • Spherical pebbles such as in a stream • Rust (color) same as the red iron oxide as in Southern Utah Survey of Astronomy

  27. Chapter 10 Survey of Astronomy The Pheonixscooped up icy dirt that gave off liquid water when warmed.

  28. Chapter 10 Spirit Sojourner Cuiriosity Each Rover has become more become bigger and more complex as we have learned how to build them and use them Survey of Astronomy

  29. Chapter 10 • Mars Pathfinder (Success) • Mars Global Surveyor (Success) • Actively taking pictures and gathering data • Mars Polar Lander (Failed) • Mars Atmosphere Observer (Failed) • 2001 Mars Odyssey • -arrived Oct 24. 2001 • -gathering data today • Landers (Future) • -biology and geology Laboratory • -to gather rocks and return them to Earth Survey of Astronomy

  30. Chapter 10 Phobos (Fear) is the large of the two. They are both tiny and badly scarred by impacts but Phobos looks like it was nearly shattered. The Japonese are planning to send a robot to pick up dirt and rock samples from Diemos (Terror) to return them to Earth Survey of Astronomy

  31. Chapter 10 End of Chapter 11 Survey of Astronomy

  32. Chapter 10 Survey of Astronomy

  33. Chapter 10 Survey of Astronomy

  34. Chapter 10 Survey of Astronomy