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Most Important Features

Most Important Features. In your notebooks – write down three things that are the most important features of the Middle Ages in Europe. The Height of Medieval Civilization. What was their economy based on?. Early Medieval Economy. Based on MANORIALISM

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Most Important Features

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  1. Most Important Features • In your notebooks – write down three things that are the most important features of the Middle Ages in Europe

  2. The Height of Medieval Civilization

  3. What was their economy based on?

  4. Early Medieval Economy Based on MANORIALISM Economic system of the Middle Ages in which land was divided into farming communities owned by nobles and worked by freemen and peasants called SERFS Self-Sufficient

  5. Manors were self sufficient • isolated from each other • own court of law • church, mill, a bread oven, and a wine press • produced their own food, clothing, tools • raised sheep, cows, fruit, vegetables • built their own houses

  6. Advances - Iron plow and horse harness

  7. New Farming Technique – 3 crop rotation (one fallow)

  8. Practice Regents – 1/2013 1. Which economic system is most closely associated with the activities shown in this art work? (1) manorialism (3) communism (2) capitalism (4) socialism 2. With which historical setting is this art work Most closely associated? (1) Japan—Tokugawa shogunate (2) Middle East—Abbasid dynasty (3) Western Europe—Middle Ages (4) India – Mughal Empire

  9. Practice Question 3. The term “subsistence farmers” as used in the Middle Ages refers to people who grow (1) enough food to feed an entire nation (2) food to export to other villages (3) just enough food to meet the needs of the immediate family (4) a single cash crop like wheat

  10. Growth of Towns • Warfare declined in western Europe during the 11th and 12th century (Barbarians like Vikings settle down) • Manor economy became more productive • Population increased • Trade revived and towns increased in size • Peasants and nobles became aware of a larger world

  11. Revival of trade • Decline of feudal warfare • Easier to trade using old Roman roads and rivers • During the Crusades trade expanded into the east. • Wool was the main trade item. Towns became the collecting and distributing point for these items • English/Flemish…. sheep • Antwerp and Bruges….weavers • Milan and Florence…. trade cloth

  12. What European territory gained control over trade in Europe and why? • Italian fleets gain control of the Mediterranean from the Muslims because of strategic location. • Travel was expensive • Barter system was gradually replaced by a money economy.

  13. Trade Fairs and the Hanseatic League • Champagne Trade Fair, France) • Nobles provided protection, rented booths, and hired money changers • Fairs became a magnet for goods and ideas

  14. Trade fairs become elaborate events • Mixing place of customs, languages, and goods. • Gradual decline due to competition from the Hanseatic League, but also the rents were too high

  15. Hanseatic League Group of over 80 towns/cites fronting the Baltic Sea - protective trade alliance (fur, timber, fish), immense power – coin own money, treaties, warships

  16. Hanseatic Towns: Became quite powerful and wealthy. Bruges, Belgium “Venice of the North”

  17. Medieval Guilds • Merchants and artisans given the right to form associations • Governed prices, wages, standards, disputes and imports/exports • Only guild members could practice their trade.

  18. Protected members ‘Just Price’ for goods Set work week, hours, pay Social welfare programs – workmen compensation Entertainment and religious feasts Training ; apprentice, journeyman and master craftsman. Could take 7 to 20 years Guilds prevented competition Passed down through the family Guild Practices

  19. Practice Regents Question – 8/13 4. Which statement best characterizes Europe during the early Middle Ages? (1) A centralized government provided law and order. (2) Manorialism developed to meet the people’s economic needs. (3) People adopted humanism and questioned the Church. (4) A standardized currency promoted international trade.

  20. Practice Regents 5. During the European Middle Ages, guilds were created to (1) obtain better working conditions in factories (2) standardize goods and prices (3) regulate the money supply (4) increase competition

  21. Medieval Church What was the churches role in politics And everyday life?

  22. Medieval Church • Powerful institution: had its own • Government • Laws • Courts • Taxation System

  23. Church and Feudalism – Church owned large tracts of land (papal state) led by pope High Church Officials were Feudal Lords Gave blessings for knighthood “Peace/Truce of God” to curb feudal warfare

  24. Church’s Control of Daily Life – • Sacraments– • Baptism • Holy Eucharist • Confirmation • Penance • Ordination • Matrimony • Anointing of the Sick • Excommunication– can not receive sacraments and treated like outcasts (lose property) • Tithe – giving alms

  25. Practice Regents Question 6. During the early Middle Ages, western European societies were most influenced by (1) national monarchies (2) the Roman Catholic Church (3) elected parliaments (4) the Byzantine emperors

  26. Monasteries– Seat of Education Copy Greek & Latin Texts/illuminated manuscripts – ex. Book of Kells Charities: sick, orphans, and homeless.

  27. How did the Church’s involvement in political affairs open the door to corruption? • Contact with wealth and power often tempted church officials to ignore vows of poverty and obedience. • Simony(buying and selling of religious orders) • Lay Investiture(when secularor non-religious - rulers gave the symbols of office to the bishop they appointed)

  28. Late Medieval - Monarchs begin to actively oppose Church’s power – especially in areas of: • - priests following church laws not country’s • - priests not paying tax on property • Babylonian Captivity(1294, King Philip IV of France kidnaps Pope who refused to pay taxes. Philip elects new pope who rule from Avignon, France) lasted from 1309-1378

  29. Great Schism(pope in Rome and pope in Avignon – results in France no longer papal fief, pope stays in Rome, popular discontent)

  30. Spanish Inquisition Isabella and Ferdinand strengthen ties with church in Late Medieval to fight off Muslims and expel Jews. (1492) used the special Church court to try people of heresy (holding beliefs other than those of Catholic Church)

  31. Practice Regents Questions 7. Which statement below best describes the role of the Roman Catholic Church in Europe during the Middle Ages? 1 The Church encouraged individuals to question authority. 2 Church leaders were only involved in spiritual activities. 3 The Church gained influence as people became more interested in secular affairs. 4 The Church provided a sense of stability, unity, and order.

  32. Medieval Europe – Art/Literature • Development of Scholasticism • Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Summa Theologica (teachings of Christ can be compatible with human reason and logic) • Vernacular literature (written in the language of the people – not Latin) – Boccacio’s Decameron and Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (regarding plague); Dante’s Divine Comedy

  33. Romanesque Architectural Style Rounded Arches. Barrel vaults. Thick walls. Darker, simplistic interiors. Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.

  34. Gothic Architectural Style Pointed arches. High, narrow vaults. Thinner walls. Flying buttresses. Elaborate, ornate, airier interiors. Stained-glass windows. “Flying” Buttresses

  35. Parts of a Medieval Castle

  36. Late Medieval Town Dwellings

  37. Medieval Universities

  38. Medieval England • After collapse of Roman Empire, pagan Germanic tribes of Angles and Saxons invaded (late 5th-6th centuries) – legends of King Arthur to battle them, converted to Christianity • 1066 – William the Conqueror (Normandy, France) conquers England, destroyed Anglo-Saxon monarchy, grants fiefs to Norman knights • English & French politics now have close political and cultural ties – but also conflict

  39. William the Conqueror:Battle of Hastings, 1066(Bayeaux Tapestry)

  40. How can a country limit the power of a king?

  41. MAGNA CARTA • King John I at Runnymeade • monarchs were not above the law. • kings had to consult a council of advisors. • kings could not tax arbitrarily. Limited the power of the Monarchy !!!

  42. Creation of Parliament (1295) • Two knights from every county Two residents from each town meeting Law made in consultation with representatives • by 1400, two chambers evolved: • House of Lords nobles & clergy. • House of Commons knights and burgesses. True Power rests in the fact that they control taxes – king can not go to war without getting money from Parliament.

  43. Practice Question Regents 8. Which institution became stronger and limited the monarchy in order to end absolutism in England? (1) banks (3) guilds (2) Parliament (4) Anglican Church

  44. Hundred Years’ War 1337-1452 • Causes: • William the Conqueror (from Normandy, France) in 1066 took over England (Battle of Hastings) • Elite were French speaking, peasants spoke German dialect

  45. Causes Cont: English control of French Land (Eleanor of Aquitaine’s was divorced by King Louis of France, she then marries Henry II of England) Economic Trade Rivals Edward III of England claims throne of France when French king dies without heir.

  46. Battles: • Early victories for England due to invention of English Longbow. • They also had cannons powered by gunpowder

  47. Joan of Arc At 12yrs, she began hearing voices of saints who told her to free France from the English. She cut her hair and dressed as a man. English tried her as a witch. She was burned at the stake in 1431 at 19yrs of age. She was canonized in 1920.

  48. Result of the 100 Years War: • Decline of Feudalism • France: • Growing sense of national pride and loyalty to king • King had power to raise taxes for standing army • Power of feudal lords limited under Louis XI • King could rule without consulting Estate General • Controlled most of modern-day France • England: • Lost French lands • Growing power of King over nobles • Parliament bargained for more rights as King needed money. • Civil War (War of the Roses) arose in which most of feudal lords killed off

  49. Black Death • 1300s – Economic and Social Problems • 1348 – Bubonic Plague (“Black Death”) arrives in Europe via fleas on rats from Asia, following trade routes. • By 1350 - European population declines by 17.5 million (about 1/3 of the total population) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grbSQ6O6kbs&safe=active

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