For each term or name, write a single sentence explaining its significance during the mid-19th century. Second Great Awakening Revival Ralph Waldo Emerson Abolition William Lloyd Garrison Frederick Douglas Elizabeth Cody Stanton Temperance Movement Strike National Trades’ Union WARM UP – using your notes only
Second Great AwakeningThe Second Great Awakening was a period of religious revival in the United States between 1790 and the 1840s. It followed the First Great Awakening of colonial America. Characteristics of the Second Great Awakening include widespread conversions, increased church activity, social activism, and the emergence of new Christian denominations. The period is considered to have ended with the American Civil War, though its legacy continues to this day.
preachers exhort their audience to accept forgiveness of personal sin through faith in Jesus Christ and to commit themselves to spiritual self discipline and religious exercises such as prayer, Bible reading, and church support. Revivalism in America has been in reaction to a perceived overemphasis by the major denominations on ritual, cultural accommodation, and doctrinal or ideological correctness at the expense of personal religious experience. Revival
was an American lecturer, essayist, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thought through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Ralph waldoemerson
ABOLITION THE ENDING OF SLAVERY
William llyod garrisonPublisher of the newspaper The Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison was a famously fierce opponent of slavery in the two decades preceding the American Civil Warknown for his uncompromising stance, fiery rhetoric and belief in "moral persuasion" rather than violent opposition.
A temperance movement is a social movement against the use of alcoholic beverages. Temperance movements may criticize excessive alcohol use, promote complete abstinence, or pressure the government to enact anti-alcohol legislation.
Strike action, also known as a walkout, a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to perform workCulture strike, refusal of artists or art institutions (arts organizations, festivals etc.) to respectively produce and show artGeneral strike, strike action by a critical mass of the labor force in a city, region or countryHunger strike, participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in othersPrison strike, strike taking place inside a prison, involving either a hunger strike or a prison work strikeRent strike, when a group of tenants en masse agrees to refuse to pay rent until a specific list of demands is met by the landlordStudent strike, occurs when students enrolled at a teaching institution such as a school, college or university refuse to go to class
National Trades’ Union In the mid-1830s, hard times and frustration with the inutility of their expanded voting rights drove tens of thousands of urban wage earners toward unionismWhile some organized national unions within their crafts, most participated in citywide "trades' unions," which established the short-lived National Trades' Union in 1834
RELIGION SPARKS REFORM (pages 240-245) 1. What new religious ideas set the stage for the reform movements of the mid-19th century? (list 2 answers)2. How did dorothydix contribute to reform? (list 2 answers)
RELIGION SPARKS REFORM (pages 240-245) 1. What new religious ideas set the stage for the reform movements of the mid-19th century? BelIEF IN THE INDIVIDUAL’S ABILITY TO IMPROVE HIMSELF OR HERSELF AND SOCIETY, AND IN A DEMOCRATIC GOD WHO WOULD OFFER SALVATION TO ALL.
RELIGION SPARKS REFORM (pages 240-245) 2. How did dorothydix contribute to reform?DIX FOUGHT FOR BETTER CONDITIONS IN PRISONS AND ASSYLUMS AND HELPED TO PIONEER THE CONCEPT OF REHABILITATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CIMINALS AND THE MENTALLY ILL
SLAVERY AND ABOLITION (PAGES 248-253) 3. How did william Lloyd garrison, frederick Douglass, and david walker each propose to end slavery?4. what steps did white southerners take to suppress slave revolts? (list 3 answers)
3. How did william Lloyd garrison, frederick Douglass, and david walker each propose to end slavery?Garrison: immediate emancipation of all slaveswalker: violent resistance to slaverydouglass: political resolution to the issue of slavery
4. what steps did white southerners take to suppress slave revolts?Tighter controls, vigilante committees to intimidate slaves, prohibited slaves from learning to read or write
Women and Reform (pages 254-258) 5. What was the cult of domesticity? (list 3 answers) 6. What was the purpose of the seneca falls convention? (list 2 answers)
Women and Reform (pages 254-258) 5. What was the cult of domesticity?Women’s activities were restricted after marriage to the home and family, had few legal protections, and could not vote
Women and Reform (pages 254-258) 6. What was the purpose of the seneca falls convention?To gain support for a women’s rights movement and to vote on a set of resolutions declaring women’s equality with men
The changing workplace (pages 259-265)7. How did working conditions in the lowell textile mills present new opportunities and new hazards?8. describe the two waves of u.s. immigration in the mid-1800’s
7. How did working conditions in the lowell textile mills present new opportunities and new hazards?Working in the mills offered better pay than teaching, sewing and domestic work. However, they had to work long hours at low pay in hot, humid factories, under the strict supervision of managers
8. describe the two waves of u.s. immigration in the mid-1800’sthe first wave of european immigrants occurred between 1830 and 1860 – the majority were german and irish.A second wave of irish immigrants occurred between 1845 and 1854 as a result of the famine in ireland.
List the four reform movements that grew out of the early 19th-century religious movements1234
List the four reform movements that grew out of the early 19th-century religious movements1 abolition2 temperance3 women’s rights4 educational reform