Anatomy (B)Anatomy and Physiology (C) Mangala Iyengar 10/3/09 Science Olympiad Coaches Institute
The Event • Covers anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the skeletal and muscular systems (and endocrine, for Division C) • Includes process skills and memorization • 1 2-sided page of notes allowed
Test Format • Timed Stations • Case Studies • Data Analysis • Passage Analysis (Division C)
Study Focuses • Critical Thinking and Logical Reasoning • Integration of Systems; the “big picture” • Pathology as a window to physiology • Speed • Memorization is important and necessary – but it isn’t enough.
Resources • Campbell’s “Biology” • NCSO Event Resources • Wikipedia • http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/products/sci_olympiad/sci_olympiad.html - older practice events and coaches clinics for various events. • http://soinc.org/ • http://www.lakesideschool.org/upperschool/community/scienceolympiad/resources.html - good compilation of links
Tournament Strategies • Don’t split systems between teammates • Write down questions on your sheet so you can answer them later • Bring a watch to time yourself at stations. • Don’t panic if you don’t know the answer off the bat; try to reason your way through
Mock Event: Part 1 • Directions will be on the projector screen – follow Anatomy or Health Science instructions as appropriate. • 1st portion: Anatomy Stations, Health Case Studies. Stations are in this power point; case studies is further back in the notebook.
Anatomy Station 1 • 1. Match each picture to the type of muscle tissue it represents . a. c b 2. What purpose do the intercalated discs serve in cardiac muscle?
Anatomy Station 2 • Parathyroid Hormone (also known as parathormone) is a hormone released from the parathyroid glands that regulates the levels of calcium in the blood. When calcium concentrations in the blood get low, parathyroid hormone sends signals to a particular type of bone cell. • What do osteoclasts do? • What do osteoblasts do? • Which of the cells do you think are receiving the signal from parathyroid hormone? • What do you think these cells are doing in response?
Anatomy Station 3 • What happens to cardiac muscle when a person performs moderate aerobic exercise over a period of several months? • Weightlifters increase their muscle size over time. Does this result from an increase in the number of muscle cells or an increase in the number of muscle fibers?
Anatomy Station 4 • What are the units of compact bone? • What are the large dark spots? • What are the small dark spots?
Mock Event: Part 2 • Health Science stations will be up on the projector; Anatomy will be doing case studies
Health Science Station 1 • Under what conditions does parathyroid hormone send messages to cells in the bone? • What type of bone cell is most likely to receive the signal from parathyroid hormone? • What do you think these cells are doing in response? • How does the cellular response to the release of parathyroid hormone maintain homeostasis?
Health Science Station 2 • Which of the following do blood vessels and nerves run through in bone? • Which of the following are connecting tunnels between osteocytes? • Which of the following house osteocytes? • Which of the following house chondrcytes? Word bank for questions 1-4: Lacunae • Colliculi • Osteal canals • Central Canals • Canaliculi • Lacunae 5. Open ended: Would it hurt less to pierce your belly button or your ears? Why?
Health Science Station 3 • In the disease called Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, motor neurons die off and stop sending signals to muscles. What is the most likely thing that will happen to muscles as a result? • What is the major event that allows a neural signal from a motor neuron to pass to muscles?
Health Science Station 4 • What is wrong with this person? • Circle the part of the X-ray that allowed you to diagnose the person • List 3 symptoms that this patient might be experiencing. • Name one activity that this person should probably avoid.