Script Before Reading_ 1.1 Kalervo Oberg Kalervo Oberg: (1901-1973) a world-renowned anthropologist. Culture Culture Shock • Born: 1901 • Birthplace: British Columbia, Canada • Died: July 11, 1973, in Corvallis, Oregon • Best Known As: a pioneer in economic and applied • anthropology Group Discussion
Before Reading_ 1.2 Kalervo Oberg was born in 1901 in the Canadian province of British Columbia, to Finnish parents. He received a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of British Columbia in 1928, a master’s degree in economics from the University of Pittsburgh, and his Ph.D from the University of Chicago. Oberg had numerous teaching positions in his career, but never a permanent position. He also worked in various government postings overseas, including the Institute of Inter-American Affairs, forerunner of the US Agency for International Development. After his employment with the government, Oberg returned to teaching at Cornell University, the University of Southern California, and also Oregon State University. He was an excellent teacher and was always aware of current events around the world and ready to discuss them. Although he did not publish as much as many anthropologists due to the nature of his work, his contributions were great. He was most famous for developing the idea of “culture shock.” Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_ 1.3 Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_ 1.4 Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_ 1.5 Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_ 1.6 Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading2.1 Directions: Culture is responsible for how we live. There are different ways to divide culture, one of which is to think about culture in two basic categories: individualism and collectivism. Watch the video and try to get the differences between individualistic cultures and collectivistic cultures. Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading2.2 Individualistic culture: Kalervo Oberg a. b. c. d. e. f. g. People are concerned more with the needs, goals and interests of the individual. People tend to emphasize self-actualization and individual initiative and achievement. People focus on an I identity. People are supposed to look after themselves and immediate families only. People tend to emphasize individual rights like freedom, independence, individuality and equality. People tend to have a SELF-other orientation toward relationships, meaning that the SELF is the most important. Examples of individualistic cultures are US and Australia. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading2.3 Collectivistic culture: Kalervo Oberg a. b. c. d. e. f. g. People are more concerned with the group’s needs, goals and interests than those of the individual. People stress fitting in with or belonging to the group. People focus on a WE identity. People are supposed to look after others in the group or collective in exchange for loyalty. People tend to emphasize belonging to groups. Family relations, loyalty and harmony are highly valued. People tend to have a self-OTHER orientation toward relationships meaning that the other is more important than the self. Examples of collectivistic cultures are China, Columbia, Costa Rica and Indonesia. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3 Directions: The term “culture shock” was introduced for the first time in 1954 by Kalvero Oberg. Now let’s learn something in detail about it. Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock 1. Definition Group Discussion 2. Six aspects of culture shock 3.A typical six-month cycle of culture shock 4.Causes of culture shock 5.Signs of culture shock 6.Dealing with intercultural stress and shock
Script Before Reading_3.1 Kalervo Oberg Definition Culture Culture shock is a term used to describe the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation, confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within an entirely different culture or social environment, such as a different country. Culture Shock Group Discussion
Script Before Reading_3.2 Kalervo Oberg Six aspects of culture shock Culture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Strain due to the effort required to make necessary psychological adaptations. A sense of loss and feelings of deprivation regarding friends, family, status, career and possessions. Being rejected by and/or rejecting members of the new culture. Confusion in role, role expectation, values, feelings and self identity. Surprise, anxiety and even disgust and indignation after becoming aware of cultural differences. Feelings of impotence due to not being able to cope with a new environment. Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.3 Kalervo Oberg A typical six-month cycle of culture shock Culture Pre-Departure Culture Shock First Month Sixth Month Group Discussion Fourth and Fifth Months Second Month Third Month
Before Reading_3.3_1 Kalervo Oberg Pre-Departure:Defined by excitement, anticipation and enthusiasm. Emotions are running high and although excited, everyone is also a bit apprehensive and concerned. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.3_2 Kalervo Oberg First Month: Still filled with the excitement of travel and newness of food, culture and environment. Learning the language becomes a priority. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.3_3 Kalervo Oberg Second Month: Distinguished by the awareness of differences being felt as unpleasant. Inconveniences in accommodation, not speaking the language well enough and the lack of familiarity of foods, shops, friends and surroundings are noticed. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.3_4 Kalervo Oberg Third Month: Often the low point in the adjustment period. Language skills seem to stagnate and personal productivity drops. Nothing about the new culture seems positive. Family and friends are greatly missed. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.3_5 Kalervo Oberg Fourth and Fifth Months: The beginning of the return of enthusiasm and enjoyment. New foods, new ways of doing things and the language are tried with a positive effect. Emotions are smoother, confidence is regained and built up, and health is restored. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_3.3_6 Kalervo Oberg Sixth Month: Brings normal lifestyle, with established routines and social life in place. The ups and downs of living abroad are accepted. Normality, indeed, has finally smiled on you once again. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Script Before Reading_3.4 Kalervo Oberg Causes of culture shock Culture 1. 2. 3. 4. Being cut off from cultural signals and known patterns of communication, especially the subtle, indirect ways of expressing feelings. Living or working over an extended period of time in a situation that is ambiguous. Having personal values (which were previously considered absolutes) brought into question. Being continually put into positions in which you are expected to function with maximum skill and speed, but where the rules have not been adequately explained. Culture Shock Group Discussion
Script Before Reading_3.5 Kalervo Oberg Signs of culture shock Culture homesickness, withdrawal, stereotyping of host nationals, need for excessive amounts of sleep, marital stress, loss of ability to work effectively, compulsive eating or drinking, unexplainable fits of weeping, irritability, physical ailments, boredom, exaggerated cleanliness, family tension and conflict Culture Shock Group Discussion
Script Before Reading_3.6 Kalervo Oberg Dealing with intercultural stress and shock Culture 1. 2. 3. 4. Gather information. The more that is known about a place or its people, the less foreign or threatening they seem. Consider traveling locally, taking a cooking class, or joining a club. Do not criticize the host culture. Resist the temptation of talking negatively about the local people. Find a friend. Find someone who can serve as a “cultural informant” to introduce parts of local life and practices that are not normally accessible to foreigners. This will help make sense of the cultural differences one naturally encounters. Look at the “big picture.” Find patterns and interrelationships that explain what is going on so that it no longer seems confusing. Culture Shock Group Discussion
Before Reading_4.1 Kalervo Oberg 1. Language is a tool for us to communicate with each other. Lack of efficient linguistic as well as cultural knowledge may cause misunderstanding between people from different cultures. Watch the video See You Later. Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion 2. Discuss with your group members. Your discussion should include the following questions: a. Do you have the similar experiences? b. Have you heard of some stories of the same type? c. What can we do to avoid such an awkward situation?
Before Reading_4.1_1 Kalervo Oberg Culture Culture Shock Group Discussion
Global Reading_ 1 Parts Para(s). Main Ideas Part Division of the Text We might call culture shock a disease which is caused by the frustration and anxiety resulting from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. 1 1~3 Further Understanding True or False Questions and Answers Culture shock is due to our own lack of understanding of other people’s cultural background and our lack of the means of communication rather than the hostility of an alien environment. Interview 2 4~6 To get over culture shock, we should get to know the people of the host country and their language; we should find out what they do, how they do it, and what their interests are, etc. But understanding the ways of a people does not mean that we have to give up our own. 3 7~9
Global Reading_ 2_1_1 ( ) 1. 2. 3. 4. Culture shock is just like a disease which can be cured. Culture shock often leads to the loss of our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Usually people resort to a particular way for dealing with their daily life. People who experience culture shock tend to view the host country irrationally. T Part Division of the Text Further Understanding ( ) F True or False Questions and Answers Culture shock results from the loss of our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Interview ( ) F We orient ourselves to the situations of daily life in countless ways. ( ) T
Global Reading_ 2_1_2 5. 6. After the period of culture shock, people tend to take a trip home. Culture shock enables people to forget everything back home, good or bad. Part Division of the Text ( ) F Further Understanding Regression is another phase of culture shock. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality. True or False Questions and Answers ( ) F Interview Culture shock makes people forget all the difficulties and problems and remember only the good thing back home.
Global Reading_ 2_2_1 1. What is the cultural environment made up of according to the passage? Part Division of the Text Further Understanding A cultural environment consists of man-made physical objects, social institution, and ideas and beliefs. True or False 2. Is culture acquired? Questions and Answers Interview Yes, it is. An individual is not born with culture but only with the capacity to learn it and use it. 3. What does culture enable young people to do? Culture enables the young to learn to adapt themselves to the physical environment and to the people with whom they associate.
Global Reading_ 2_2_2 4. What is ethnocentrism? Part Division of the Text It is a belief people hold that not only their culture but their race and nation form the center of the world. Further Understanding True or False 5. What is the proper way for us to treat ethnocentrism according to the author? Questions and Answers Interview We should recognize that ethnocentrism is a permanent characteristic of national groups. 6. What should people know first in order to overcome culture shock? People should realize that their trouble is caused by lack of understanding of different cultural background and the lack of means to communicate, and that both understanding and means can be gained by themselves.
Global Reading_ 2_3 Directions: Work in pairs to perform an interview. One student plays as the writer, Kalervo Oberg, and the other, a TV reporter. The topic you are talking about is how we can get over culture shock. Your conversation should be based on part 3 and the interview should cover the following three aspects: Part Division of the Text Further Understanding True or False Questions and Answers 1. 2. 3. learn the language; get to know the value and interest pattern; be a participant observer. Interview
Global Reading_ 2_4 • Do the students in distance learning programs use • textbook? Part Division Further Understanding Yes, they do. But textbooks are just learning aids and they aren’t the only source of knowledge. Questions and Answers 2. Where can cyber students acquire knowledge apart from textbooks? Blank Filling True or False Questions and Answers From the collaborative efforts of online debates, conferences and papers.
Detailed Reading Detailed Reading People tend to experience frustration and anxiety when they enter a new culture. This phenomenon is often referred to as “culture shock.” How and why does it happen? What is the nature of “culture shock”? And how can we cope with it? Kalervo Oberg provides us with some answers.
Culture Shock Kalervo Oberg Detailed Reading_t1-2 Detailed Reading We might almost call culture shock an occupational disease of people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most ailments it has its own cause, symptoms, and cure. Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. These signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situations of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to give orders to servants, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not.These cues which may be words, gestures,
Detailed Reading_t2-3 facial expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept.All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues. Detailed Reading Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded you may be, a series of props have been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes the discomfort: “The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad.”
Detailed Reading_t3-4 When Americans or other foreigners in a strange land get together to complain about the host country and its people — you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To an American everything American becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality. Detailed Reading In an effort to get over culture shock, there is some value in knowing something about the nature of culture and its relationship to the individual. In addition to living in a physical environment, an individual lives in a cultural environment consisting of man-made physical objects, social institutions, and ideas and beliefs. An individual is not born with culture but only with the capacity to learn it and use it. There is nothing in a newborn child which dictates that it should eventually speak
Detailed Reading_t4 Portuguese, English, or French; nor that he should eat with a fork in his left hand rather than in the right or use chopsticks. All these things the child has to learn. Nor are the parents responsible for the culture which they transmit to their young. The culture of any people is the product of his try and is built up over time largely through Detailed Reading processes which are beyond his awareness. It is by means of culture that the young learn to adapt themselves to the physical environment and to the people with whom they associate. And as we know, children and adolescents often experience difficulties in this process of learning and adjustment. But once learned, culture becomes a way of life.
Detailed Reading_t5 People have a way of accepting their culture as both the best and the only way of doing things. This is perfectly normal and understandable. To this attitude we give the name ethnocentrism, a belief that not only the culture but the race and the nation form the center of the world. Individuals Detailed Reading identify themselves with their own group to the extent that any critical comment is taken as a remark which is rude to the individual as well as to the group. If you criticize my country, you are criticizing me; if you criticize me, you are criticizing my country. Along with this attitude goes the tendency to attribute all individual peculiarities as national characteristics. For instance,
Detailed Reading_t5-6 if an American does something odd or anti-social in a foreign country which back home would be considered a purely individual act, this is now considered a national trait. He acts that way not because he is Joe Doaks but because he is an American. Instead of being censured as an individual, his country is censured. It is thus best to recognize that ethnocentrism is a permanent characteristic of national groups. Even if a national criticizes some aspect of his own culture, the foreigner should listen but not enter into the criticism. Detailed Reading Once you realize that your trouble is due to your own lack of understanding of other people’s cultural background and your own lack of the means of communication rather than the hostility of an alien environment, you also realize that you yourself can gain this understanding and these means of communication. And the sooner you do this, the sooner culture shock will disappear.
Detailed Reading_t7 The question now arises, what can you do to get over culture shock as quickly as possible? The answer is getting to know the people of the host country. But this you cannot do with any success without knowing the language, for language is the principal symbol Detailed Reading system of communication. Now we all know that learning a new language is difficult, particularly to adults. This task alone is quite enough to cause frustration and anxiety, no matter how skillful language teachers are in making it easy for you. But once you begin to be able to carry on a friendly conversation with your maid, your neighbour, or to go on shopping trips alone, you not only gain confidence and a feeling of power but a whole new world of cultural meanings opens up for you.
Detailed Reading_t8-9 You begin to find out what people do, how they do it, and what their interests are. People usually express these interests by what they habitually talk about and how they allocate their time and money. Once you know this value or interest pattern it will be quite easy to get people to talk to and be interested in you. Detailed Reading At times it is helpful to be a participant observer by joining the activities of the people, to try to share in their responses, whether this be a carnival, a religious ritual, or some economic activity. Yet the visitor should never forget that he or she is an outsider and will be treated as such.
Detailed Reading_t9 He or she should view this participation as a role-playing. Understanding the ways of a people is essential but this does not mean that you have to give up your own. What happens is that you have developed two patterns of behavior. Detailed Reading
Detailed Reading_t1-2_ Like most … Like most ailments it has its own cause, symptoms, and cure. Detailed Reading 1. What does “it” refer to in this sentence? “It” refers to culture shock. 2. In the previous sentence, the author uses the word “disease”, but here the word “ailments” is used. What is the difference between these two words? Disease is a general term referring to an illness which affects a person, animal, or plant. Ailment refers to an illness that is not very serious. Obviously, culture shock is not a serious physical disease that is affecting one’s body. It is just a kind of emotional discomfort usually found in somebody who has been suddenly transplanted abroad. 3. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 和大部分疾病一样，这种病有其独特的起因、症状和疗法。
… when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to give orders to servants, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. Detailed Reading_t1-2_when to shake …1 Detailed Reading 1. Say something more about the usage of “when/what/how/ infinitive” structure. • There are three points to remember when you use this kind • of structure: • This structure is used only after such English verbs as • ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn, • remember, see (=understand/perceive), and wonder, etc.; • 2) Besides “when/what/how”, words like “where/which/whether” can also be used in this structure; • 3) The structure “whether + infinitive” is usually used after • “want to know” or “wonder.” • More examples: • *I found out where to buy fruit cheaply. • *I didn’t know when to switch the machine off. • *I wondered whether to write or phone.
Detailed Reading_t1-2_when to shake …2 2. Paraphrase “when to take statements seriously and when not.” Detailed Reading when we should believe that these statements are worth our attention and when we needn’t pay attention to them
Detailed Reading_t1-2_ These cues … These cues which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. Detailed Reading 1. According to this statement, what makes up our culture? The cues we acquire in daily life, the language we speak, and the beliefs we accept. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 这些暗示可以是语言、手势、面部表情、风俗习惯或社会行为标准。我们在成长的过程中获得了这些暗示，就像我们的语言和我们所接受的信仰一样，它们已经成为我们文化的一部分。
Detailed Reading_t2-3_All of us depend … All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues. Detailed Reading What is the implied meaning of this sentence? Without these familiar cues such as words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, we would probably get lost and suffer from frustration and anxiety, and wouldn’t be able to work efficiently.
Detailed Reading_t3-4_To an American … To an American everything American becomes irrationally glorified. Detailed Reading Do the two words “American” in this sentence mean the same? No, they don’t mean the same. The first “American” is a noun, meaning “someone from the USA,” while the second is used as an adjective, meaning “relating to the USA.”
Detailed Reading_t4_The culture of … The culture of any people is the product of history and is built up over time largely through processes which are beyond his awareness. Detailed Reading 1. What can you infer from this sentence? Culture develops and builds up through a long but hardly noticeable process. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 任何一个民族的文化都是历史的产物，经过漫长的、本民族意识不到的过程才得以积累形成。
To this attitude we give the name ethnocentrism, a belief that not only the culture but the race and the nation form the center of the world. Detailed Reading_t5_To this attitude … Detailed Reading 1. To what kind of attitude do we give the name ethnocentrism? We give the name ethnocentrism to the attitude that people regard their culture as both the best and the only way of doing things. 2. How is ethnocentrism defined in this sentence? It is a belief that not only the culture but the race and the nation form the center of the world. 3. Analyze the structure of this sentence. 1) The first part of this sentence uses the technique of fronting (前置手法). The regular sentence order would be “We give the name ethnocentrism to this attitude”; 2) In the second part, there is an appositve clause used to modify “belief,” telling us the specific content of this “belief.”
Detailed Reading_t5_For instance … For instance, if an American does something odd or anti-social in a foreign country which back home would be considered a purely individual act, this is now considered a national trait. Detailed Reading 1. What can we infer from the sentence? People tend to attribute all individual peculiarities as national characteristics. 2. Translate this sentence into Chinese. 例如，倘若一个美国人在国外做出怪异的或有悖社会公德的事情，在美国国内的人们会认为这纯属个人行为，但在国外却被视为一种民族特性。