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reaction prediction pre ap chemistry n.
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REACTION PREDICTION Pre-AP CHEMISTRY PowerPoint Presentation
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REACTION PREDICTION Pre-AP CHEMISTRY

REACTION PREDICTION Pre-AP CHEMISTRY

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REACTION PREDICTION Pre-AP CHEMISTRY

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  1. REACTION PREDICTIONPre-APCHEMISTRY

  2. Reactants  ProductsThe arrow means “yields” or “produces”

  3. (s) = solid(g)= gas(l)= liquid(aq)= aqueous (dissolved in water) = reversible reaction = catalyst (in this case, Pt is the catalyst) = heat is added = heat is added

  4. Practice “translating” a word equation:Solid zinc metal reacts with aqueous copper(II) sulfate to produce solid copper metal and aqueous zinc sulfate. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq)  Cu(s) + ZnSO4(aq)

  5. Balancing Equations*Balancing is a trial and error process and is best done in pencil!!*We balance an equation so that the reactants and products each have the same number of atoms of each element (conservation of mass).*We must correctly write the formulas for all reactants and products before we balance.

  6. Coefficients = Numbers placed in front of reactants and products2H2 + O22H2OThis means that 2 moles or molecules of hydrogen gas react with 1 mole or molecule of oxygen gas to produce 2 moles or molecules of water. The coefficients must be in the lowest ratio.

  7. Hints: *Balance elements one at a time.*Balance polyatomic ions that appear on both sides of the equation as single units. (Ex. Count sulfate ions, not sulfur and oxygen separately)*Balance H and O last.

  8. Zn + HCl  ZnCl2 + H2 Zn + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2

  9. Al2(SO4)3 + Ca(OH)2 Al(OH)3 + CaSO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3Ca(OH)2 2Al(OH)3 + 3CaSO4

  10. K + H2O  KOH + H2 2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2

  11. CH4 + O2 CO2 + H2O CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

  12. Fe + Cl2 FeCl3 2Fe + 3Cl22FeCl3

  13. C6H14 + O2 CO2 + H2O 2C6H14 + 19O212CO2 + 14 H2O

  14. Al4C3 + H2O  CH4 + Al(OH)3 Al4C3 + 12H2O 3CH4 + 4Al(OH)3

  15. Balance the following chemical equations. • ___ Ca + ____ H2O  ____Ca(OH)2+____H2 Ca + 2 H2O  Ca(OH)2 + H2 2. ____Cu2S + _____O2 ____Cu2O + ______SO2 2 Cu2S + 3 O22 Cu2O + 2SO2 3. _____MnO2 + _____HCl  ______MnCl2 + ______H2O + _____Cl2 MnO2 + 4 HCl  MnCl2 + 2H2O + Cl2 4. _____NH4NO3 + _____NaOH  _____NH3 + _____H2O + _____NaNO3 NH4NO3 + NaOH  NH3 + H2O + NaNO3

  16. 5. ____Fe(OH)3  _____Fe2O3 + _____H2O 2Fe(OH)3  Fe2O3 + 3H2O 6. _____C3H6 + _____O2  _____CO2 + _____H2O 2C3H6 + 9O2  6CO2 + 6H2O 7. __Zn(OH)2 + __H3PO4 __Zn3(PO4)2 + ___H2O 3 Zn(OH)2 + 2 H3PO4 Zn3(PO4)2 + 6H2O 8. _____CO + _____Fe2O3 _____Fe + _____CO2 3 CO + Fe2O32 Fe + 3 CO2 • _ NH4Cl + __Ca(OH)2 ___NH3 + ___H2O + __CaCl2 2NH4Cl + Ca(OH)22 NH3 + 2 H2O + CaCl2 • ___HC2H3O2 + ___NaHCO3  __CO2 + __NaC2H3O2 + __H2O HC2H3O2 + NaHCO3  CO2 + NaC2H3O2 + H2O

  17. Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following reactions. Include physical state symbols.1. Copper metal heated with oxygen gives solid copper(II) oxide. 2Cu(s) + O2(g)  2CuO(s)

  18. 2. Mixing ammonium nitrate and sodium hydroxide solutions gives aqueous sodium nitrate, ammonia gas, and water. NH4NO3(aq) + NaOH(aq)  NaNO3(aq) + NH3(g) + H2O(l)

  19. 3. Mercury(II) nitrate solution reacts with potassium iodide solution to give a mercury(II) iodide precipitate and potassium nitrate solution. Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)  HgI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)

  20. 4. Solutions of acetic acid and lithium hydroxide produce water and aqueous lithium acetate. HC2H3O2(aq) + LiOH(aq)  H2O(l) + LiC2H3O2(aq)

  21. 5. Heating solid potassium chlorate in the presence of manganese dioxide catalyst produced potassium chloride and oxygen gas. 2KClO3(s) MnO2 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

  22. DECOMPOSITION REACTIONS-Reaction where a compound breaks down into two or more elements or compounds. Heat, electrolysis, or a catalyst is usually necessary.

  23. A compound may break down to produce two elements. Ex. Molten sodium chloride is electrolyzed. 2NaCl 2Na + Cl2

  24. A compound may break down to produce an element and a compound. Ex. A solution of hydrogen peroxide is decomposed catalytically. 2H2O2 2H2O + O2

  25. A compound may break down to produce two compounds. Ex. Solid magnesium carbonate is heated. MgCO3MgO + CO2

  26. Metallic carbonates break down to yield metallic oxides and carbon dioxide. K2CO3 K2O + CO2

  27. Metallic chlorates break down to yield metallic chlorides and oxygen. 2RbClO3 2RbCl + 3O2

  28. Metallic sulfites break down to yield metallic oxides and sulfur dioxide. BaSO3 BaO + SO2

  29. Hydrogen peroxide decomposes into water and oxygen.

  30. Sulfurous acid decomposes into water and sulfur dioxide.

  31. Carbonic acid decomposes into water and carbon dioxide.

  32. Hydrated salts decompose into the salt and water Sodium carbonate monohydrate is heated. Na2CO3.H2O Δ Na2CO3 + H2O

  33. Complete and balance the following reactions:

  34. 1. ZnCO3 ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2

  35. 2. KClO3 2KClO32KCl + 3O2

  36. 3. HgO  2HgO 2Hg + O2

  37. 4. H2CO3 H2CO3H2O + CO2

  38. 5. NaCl electricity > 2NaCl electricity > 2Na + Cl2

  39. 6. H2SO3 H2SO3H2O + SO2

  40. 7. CaCO3 CaCO3CaO + CO2

  41. 8. H2O electricity > 2H2O electricity > 2H2 + O2

  42. 9. Na2SO4.10H2O  Na2SO4.10H2O  Na2SO4+10H2O

  43. 10. H2O2MnO2 > 2H2O2MnO2 >2H2O + O2

  44. 11. CuSO4.5H2O  CuSO4.5H2O  CuSO4+5H2O

  45. ADDITION REACTIONS-also called synthesis, combination or composition reactions-Two or more elements or compounds combine to form a single product.

  46. -A Group IA or IIA metal may combine with a nonmetal to make a salt. Ex. A piece of lithium metal is dropped into a container of nitrogen gas. 6Li + N2 2Li3N

  47. -Two nonmetals may combine to form a molecular compound. C + O2 CO2

  48. -Two compounds combine to form a single product. Sulfur dioxide gas is passed over solid calcium oxide. SO2 + CaO  CaSO3

  49. -A metallic oxide plus carbon dioxide yields a metallic carbonate. (Carbon keeps the same oxidation state) Li2O + CO2 Li2CO3

  50. -A metallic oxide plus sulfur dioxide yields a metallic sulfite. (Sulfur keeps the same oxidation state) K2O + SO2 K2SO3