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Tropical Grassland -Savanna- PowerPoint Presentation
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Tropical Grassland -Savanna-

Tropical Grassland -Savanna-

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Tropical Grassland -Savanna-

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  1. Tropical Grassland-Savanna-

  2. Climate • Temperature • 20o-30o Celsius • Average Rainfall • 100-400 mm per year (80% in wet season) • Sunlight • Lots of sun during dry season • Grasses are mostly C4

  3. Soil Fertility Sandy, dusty, high iron content (reddish color) Not very rich Termites turn the soil to air it Dead plant matter can’t decompose in dry season Soil Fertility

  4. Seasonal Changes • Wet • 4-5 months • Equatorial low pressure belt • Heavy convectional storms • 80% total annual rainfall • Dry • Strong, steady “trade winds” • Dry and warm as they blow towards equator

  5. Characteristics • Vegetation • 100-200 mm rainfall-only grasses • 300 mm rainfall-shrubs • < 300 mm rainfall-solitary trees • < 400 mm rainfall- trees, canopy, shade • Trees-deciduous-lose leaves in winter • Shrubs/Grasses-C4

  6. Geography • Location • 5o-15o north and south of equator • Llanos (Venezuela), Campos (Brazil), Central Africa, Australia, Mexico

  7. Limiting Factors • Rain • Fire • Soil Fertility

  8. Form herds and colonies for protection Care for young Lookout for predators Meekrat- Suricata suricatta siricata Nigriceps Ant- Crematogaster nigriceps Animal Life and Adaptations

  9. Grazing herbivores adopt migratory lifestyles Long legs, wings African Elephant- Loxodonta africana Grant’s Zebra- Equusburchelli bohmi Animal Life and Adaptations

  10. Animals give birth only during rainy season Food is abundant More offspring than predators Dama Gazelle-Gazella dama Animal Life and Adaptations

  11. Animal Life and Adaptations • Herbivores reduce competition for food • Feed at different heights • Giraffe- Giraffa camelopardalis • Darma dik-dik- Madoqua kirkii

  12. Animal Life and Adaptations • Small animals burrow deep underground • Water • Dormant during dry season • African Ground Squirrel- Xerus inauris

  13. Plant Life and Adaptations • Fire • Thick, fire resistant bark • Buds in bark sprout after fires • Seeds that germinate in ashes • Bottle trees- Adansonia digitata

  14. Plant Life and Adaptations • Fire • Lignotubers • Eucalyptus trees- Eucalyptus globulus

  15. Plant Life and Adaptations • Water • “drought deciduous” • River Bushwillow-Combretum erythrophyllum

  16. Plant Life and Adaptations • Water • Long roots extending far underground (Taproot system) • Corkscrew-shaped awns • Red Oat Grass- Themeda triandra

  17. Plant Life and Adaptations • Defense • Thorns and leathery,sharp leaves for protection • Toxic chemicals • Elephant Grass-Pennistum purpureum • Whistling Thorn tree-Acacia dreparalobium

  18. Plant Life and Adaptations • Senegal Gum Acacia- Acacia senegal • Jackal Berry Tree- Diospyrosmespiliformis

  19. Savanna has shrunk Some has been replanted by humans Introduction of exotic plants Changes in Last Century

  20. Human Activities • Nomadic cattle grazing • Soil erosion by overgrazing • Man-made fire • Used to control grasses and for hunting • Tree clearing • Climate change • Introduction of exotic plants

  21. Conservation • Replanting destroyed grasses • Monitoring endangered plants and animals • Preserves and National Parks

  22. The Circle of Life Dry Season Wet Season Animal adaptations