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BLOOD

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  1. BLOOD

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the primary functions' of blood • Describe the characteristics of blood • Discuss the blood types including Rh factor • Describe common disorders of blood

  3. Blood transports substances and maintains homeostasis in the body Hematophobia= fear of blood

  4. Blood and Blood Cells Blood is a type of CONNECTIVE TISSUE It has two basic components: CELLS  (rbc, wbc, platelets)  = 45% Plasma (water, proteins, amino acids..etc)  = 55%

  5. Hematocrit - volume of blood cells in a sample, should be 45%. The remaining fluid is plasma (55%). To determine the percentages, blood is placed in a centrifuge

  6. Three Types of Blood Cells red blood cells (erythrocytes)white blood cells (leukocytes)platelets (thrombocytes)

  7. BLOOD RBC live about 4 months before going to the liver Granular leukocytes live only a few days Non-granular leukocyte 6 months or more

  8. Biconcave discs 5 million per cubic millimeter Lack nuclei HEMATOPOEISIS – formation of blood cells (bone marrow) Liver & Spleen - phagocytosis

  9. Main Functions of RBCs Transports oxygen, picks up carbon dioxide HEMOGLOBIN - molecule that combines with O2 IRON is critical to synthesize hemoglobin

  10. Oxygen Levels Oxyhemoglobin =         plenty of oxygen; bright red Deoxyhemoglobin =         low in O2, “bluish red”

  11. Elements Critical to RBC Production Folic Acid Vitamin B12 Iron Too few RBC = anemia

  12. WHITE BLOOD CELLS(Leukocytes) Granulocytes (granular cytoplasm)           Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils Agranulocytes (lacking granular cytoplasm)            Monocytes, Lymphocytes General function is to protect the body against disease There are FIVE different kinds of WBCs

  13. Active phagocytes 60% of WBC Present in the pus of wounds Neutrophil (nucleus has several lobes)

  14. Produces Heparin and Histamines Important in Inflammatory Reaction 1% WBC Basophil

  15. Mainly attack parasites 2% WBC Eosinophil

  16. Monocyte (larger cell, horseshoe shaped nucleus) Become macro-phages

  17. Lymphocyte(nucleus is dark and takes up almost whole cell; almost no cytoplasm seen) Defense against invaders Yield Antibodies 30% WBC

  18. Left: Lymphoctye | Right: Neutrophil

  19. Platelets (thrombocytes) Blood clots and vessel repair

  20. Platelets • Platelets and blood clotting • Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting • Blood clot formation • Clotting factors released at the injury site produce prothrombin activator • Prothrombin activator and calcium convert prothrombin to thrombin • Thrombin triggers formation of fibrin, which traps RBC to form a clot

  21. The liquid portion of blood is 92% water Also contains nutrients, gases, vitamins (etc) and plasma proteins PLASMA

  22. Plasma Proteins Albumins – blood pressure Globulins (alpha, beta, gamma) – transport lipids and antibodies for immunity Fibrinogen – important for blood clotting MAJOR EVENT IN BLOOD CLOTTING = Fibrinogen converted to FIBRIN

  23. This machine removes the plasma from the blood and returns the RBC’s to the donor.

  24. HEMOSTASIS The process of stopping bleeding Involves the coagulation and clotting of the blood to seal the site of damage

  25. THREE EVENTS IN HEMOSTASIS 1.  Blood Vessel Spasm    Seratonin = vasoconstrictor 2.  Platelet plug formation 3.   Blood coagulation conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin *thrombin is an enzyme that causes the conversion

  26. Hemostasis Blood Clot Formation Animated(Video) 2D animation Medivisual

  27. COAGULATION  -  the thickening of blood to form a clot  (hematoma)

  28. THROMBUS – blood clot (abnormal) EMBOLUS – when the clot moves to another place.

  29.  What is DVT?        Video:  Deep Vein Thrombosis What is a Pulmonary Embolism?          Video:  Pulmonary Embolism

  30. BLOOD TYPES

  31. On a cold day in 1667, a renegade physician named Jean Denis transfused calf's blood into one of Paris's most notorious madmen. In doing so, Denis angered not only the elite scientists who had hoped to perform the first animal-to-human transfusions themselves, but also a host of powerful conservatives who believed that the doctor was toying with forces of nature that he did not understand. Just days after the experiment, the madman was dead, and Denis was framed for murder.  From:  Blood Work: A Tale of Medicine and Murder in the Scientific Revolution

  32. 1901 - Austrian Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups Even animals have blood types

  33. 4 Possible Blood Types Alleles: A, B, O A & B are codominant O is recessive Blood Type is Controlled by 3 Alleles

  34. Rh system • Rh-positive blood • Rh factor antigen present in RBCs • Rh-negative blood • No Rh factor present in RBCs • No anti-Rh antibodies present naturally in plasma • Anti-Rh antibodies appear in the plasma of Rh-negative people if Rh-positive RBCs have been introduced into their bodies

  35. Genotypes

  36. Type A (genotype AA) x Type O (genotype OO) Consider Both Parents

  37. Blood Type Antigens

  38. Blood that has antibodies on it that is not recognized by the body will be attacked by your immune system AB is the Universal Acceptor O is the Universal Donor

  39. A person can either be Rh + or Rh – (positive is dominant) Rh Factor

  40. *Problem: When a fetus is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-, this can cause the mother’s immune system to attack the fetus. There are drugs that will suppress this reaction. Rh Factor and Pregnancy