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What on Earth Is Communication for Development (C4D)?. Delivering as One Pilots Communications Workshop New York December 2009. What is C4D?. Strategic use of communication to influence policy and promote positive behaviour change and social transformation
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What on Earth Is Communication for Development (C4D)? Delivering as One Pilots Communications Workshop New York December 2009
What is C4D? Strategic use of communication to influence policy and promote positive behaviour change and social transformation Rights-based and gender sensitive approach Individuals, households, communities, networks Systematic & evidence-informed Privileges local contexts Uses consultation & participation Relies on mix of tools, approaches, channels
Media/E.R. C4D Unit Differentiating Media Commsand C4D Practice Media/E.R. & C4D NATIONAL LEVEL ADVOCACY – decision makers, donors: policy change, political will, resource mobilization PARTNERSHIPS – mobilization of high level spokespersons, stakeholders, celebrities, INGOs, civil society, religious leaders MEDIA MOBILISATION – appropriate engagement with media outlets, influence programming, editorial policy and direction MASS MEDIA – promote positive social and behavioural norms, wide-spread diffusion of information and ideas SUB-NATIONAL LEVEL LOCAL LEVEL ADVOCACY – local authorities: local resource allocation, supportive environment for programme activities SOCIAL MOBILIZATION – participation and action of community groups, service delivery systems, community support to households COMMUNITY & HOUSEHOLD LEVEL COMMUNICATION – inform, influence, inspire and support communities/HHs for adoption and sustained practice of desired behaviors C4D
UNICEF’s C4D Framework of Strategies ADVOCACY (Policies & Resource Mobilisation) SOCIAL MOBILISATION BEHAVIOUR & SOCIAL CHANGE Media Civil Society National Political leaders Donors, Private Sector Organized networks Children, women, caregivers, households, families, community CBOs/ NGOs/ FBOs Service delivery Partners - partnership building & capacity building C4D across all areas Policy makers & Planners
Health & Nutrition C4D for Behaviour and Social Change Integral to All Programmes Governance Labour C4D Process for Behaviour and Social Change Agriculture Emergency Early Childhood Development WASH Education HIV&AIDS Prevention Protection
Trends in Communication for Development ‘60s-’70s Focus on information dissemination through mass/traditional media Audience as ‘passive recipients’ of information • Information Education & Communication ‘80s-’90s Behaviour Change Communication/ Social Marketing Focus on individual knowledge, attitudes and practices Audience input and feedback necessary for design of campaigns Today Emphasis on participatory approaches, community engagement in defining issues & identifying options for action Focus on individuals in context of socio-cultural norms and social networks Communication for Development
Evolving Communication for Development Shifts in Approaches • 1. Messages dialogue and engagement • 2. Individual behaviour collective social change • 3. Beneficiary driven approach human rights approach • 4. Problem identification appreciation of context, facilitators • 5. Expert-driven solutions community-driven solutions • 6. Ad hoc strategic, systematic, evidence - based, longer-term
Example: Child Survival: Key Outcomes Policies Demand – “Pull” Service Delivery – “Push” Advocacy – Community Voices Improved health facilities Availability of supplies & essential drugs Improved health worker skills Client-friendly health services Awareness, improved knowledge & attitudes Favourable environment – family & community support Active participation Confidence, self-efficacy
Measurement of C4D Outcomes/Impact • Reach of media and information • Increased knowledge and awareness • Improved and new skills • Increased delivery and demand for products & services • Changes in behaviour and practices • Improvements in interaction (service provider - client) • Shifts in attitudes, social norms and power relationships • Enhanced self esteem, self efficacy • Improvements in national government policies • Changes in community perceptions and participation • Adherence to basic human rights principles
C4D Process • Coordination Mechanisms • Partnerships, task forces Monitoring & Evaluation Progress toward programme goals Communication Analysis Socio-economic, cultural, behavioural, political, communication, audience The ‘Science’ Implementation Media dissemination, training & roll out of community outreach activities & ‘Art’ Communication Strategy Communication objectives, participant analysis, messages and channels (mass/IPC) Creative Strategy & Materials Development Pre-testing of communication materials
Challenges Ahead Changing Physical, Socio-Political & Economic Environment • Financial Crisis: what impact even if improvements in next year? • Demographics: Aging populations, youth ‘bulges’: what approaches, technologies, “languages”? • Rapid Urbanization, Conflict: how deal with politics of identity: religion, nationality, culture, ethnicity? • Climate Change: what impact on families, social structures; how design complex, multi-issue, multi-level strategies?
Challenges Ahead Changing Development & Communication Environment • Science & Technology – Advances and Divides: how ‘democratize’ ICTs and ensure equal voice of minorities & marginalized populations, especially children & women? • Multiple players in development: • Voice of Civil Society:how engage more strategically & help shape social, economic, political dialogue? • Power of the Private Sector:how learn and ensure strengthening of human/child rights dimension
External Comms and C4D: Working Together • Closer work on cell phone and Internet technologies? • Facts for Life • UN Round Table process • What else?