Today’s Session Structure • Four-Hour Review • Designed for Exam Review • Sectioned Same as Exam • Breaks when needed
What To Expect • Multiple Choice and True/False • 4 Sections • 250 – Choose most correct answer • 70% Passing grade in each section
General Technology: Network Administration Emerging Technologies Telecom System Architecture Targeted Technology: Facilities Club Applications Resort / Spa Marketing / Web Applications Hotel Technology: Accounting / Payroll / HR Food and Beverage Lodging Applications Managing Technology: Time and Attendance Systems General Management System Strategies System Analysis and Selection Review Topics
General Technology Section One
A combination of programs, gives some computers and peripherals the capability to accepts request for service across the network, and provide computers the capability to correctly use network devices. Network Operating Systems
NT Server 2003 Novell Linux UNIX (HP-UX/AIX) Network Operating Systems
File Management Memory Management Peripheral Control Network Communication The O/S Kernel
Network Design • Connectivity • Provides communications across a defined network. • Advantages • Data Sharing • Application Sharing • Device Sharing • Communications (packets) • Local Area Network (LAN) • Wide Area Network (WAN) • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Network Architecture • Definition: The technique used by a NIC/LAN adapter to control access to a cable and cable connectors.
Network Architecture Two Types: • Peer to Peer: client-based • Client Server: server based • Have a higher startup cost than peer to peer networks; provide good control, backup, and management of critical data; offers security, data management, fast response and room for expansion, but DOES NOT need all the software installed on the server.
LAN • Definition:A configuration of workstations that enables users in the same office to share data, programs, and output devices (such as printers). • Cable Connections: • Fiber, Twisted Pair, Coax, and Twinax • Fiber Optics is used for the fastest possible throughput at very long cable lengths • Twinax is not the recommended line for moving large data or video files. • Connection type and speed: • 10Mbps, 100Mbps, 1000Mbps (Gigabyte)
WAN • Definition: Multiple connection of computer networks, from building to building, city to city, state to state, and country to country utilizing DSU/CSU router. • CSU/DSU: Channel Services unit/ Data Services unit. Is used to connect computers, video equipment, and multiplexors to digital phone lines.
WAN • Connections type and speed: • ISDN (128Kbs) • offers the lowest overall circuit cost type of service for connection of remote network sites to a central location. • T1 (1.5Mbps) and T3 (up to 45Mbps) • The standard speed is NOT 100Mbps. • NOT Associated Technologies • NIC’s, Repeaters, Hubs & Apple Talk
Network Security • Network Login and Passwords • Promptly change your password on initial login for proper security procedures for user-level passwords • Single Sign-on • Components of a single sign-on system include authentication and a directory service.
Network Security • PGP - Pretty Good Privacy • Software that implements public key cryptology that requires a key pair of both a public key and a private key • SSL – Secure Socket Layer • Is built upon Public key encryption, Digital Signature, and Digital Certificates, but NOT Single Key system using substitution encryption. • To defeat SSL and PGP you would utilize Cryptanalysis, Reverse engineer of the implementation, and Pass phrase attack, but NOT insider security information.
Network Security • SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol • an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. • Network File Access • controls security rights for users files • Biometric Technology • Is capable of enhancing physical security such as guest and employee entry.
Firewalls Software and hardware that filters and secures your private network, allowing only authorized access and transmissions of your internal data.
Computer Viruses • Malicious computer programs: • Virus • Unauthorized set of programmed code that attaches itself to other programs. • Worm • Independent programs that may replicate itself throughout the network. • Trojan Horse • Masquerades as a legitimate program but has malicious software inside • Are computer bugs a virus??
TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Is NOT a telecommunication communications protocol. TCP Packets: Are numbered so they can be reassembled in the correct sequence at the destination. Are transmitted over the network as capacity becomes available. Forwarded across the network separately and do not necessarily follow the same route. Do not contain destination addresses only. Header information includes Total length of the packet, destination IP address, Source IP address, and Error checking information. DOES NOT include sender’s login information. TCP/IP
Packet Switching Checking for valid packets, destination address, best route, assembling packets in order, but NOT for data compression. Static verses Dynamic Addresses DHCP: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is used to assign dynamic IP addresses on an as-requested basis. 3 Classes of IP Addresses TCP/IP
Class A ###. xxx .xxx . xxx (ex. 26.x.x.x)(1-126).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254) Class B ### .###.xxx .xxx (ex. 172.16.x.x)(128-191).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254) Class C ### .###.###.xxx (ex. 192.168.1.x)(192-223).(1-254).(1-254).(1-254) IP Address Classes
Parallel Transmission • Multiple channels to transmit several bits of data at a time • Timed pulses sent on other wires within the same cable to coordinate the flow of data • Parallel ports, parallel cable, user configuration of controller • Over short distances -LAN
Serial Transmission • Single channel to transmit bit by bit • Bits travel as a sequence over a single wire with start and stop bits to coordinate data flow • Serial cable, serial ports, user configuration of controller • Long distances - telephone transmission
Modems • Converts on and off digital pulses of computer data into on-and-off analog tones that can be transmitted over a normal telephone circuit. • Uses: • Allow computers to communicate over distances • E-mail, internet, bulletin boards • Polling, file transfer, system support
Today’s Technologies • Smart Cards • XML • Bluetooth • VPN • VoIP • HSIA • ASP
Smart Cards Embedded micro chips that store personal information, allow credit and commerce transactions, access to room and other information.
XML – eXtended Markup Language Language that is not constrained to a fixed format and allows trading partners to create their own data tags for information exchange, has become the standard for all markup language, provides data in a format that is easily exchanged & non-proprietary.
XML Example Guest Reservation <?xml version="1.0" ?> <Reservation GuestName="Mr. Jim Smith"> <GuestAddress> <GuestStreet>123 Peachtree St.</GuestStreet> <GuestCity>Atlanta</GuestCity> <GuestState>GA</GuestState> <GuestZip>30030</GuestZip> <HomePhone>(404) 577-1234</HomePhone> </GuestAddress> <Payment Method="Credit Card"> <CardType>Visa</CardType> <CardNumber>4999 1234 5678 8901</CardNumber> <ExpDate>2006-05-31</ExpDate> </Payment> <ReservationId>1654739</ReservationId> <Property>NoTel Motel</Property> <ReservationMade>2004-05-28T10:23:44</ReservationMade> <CheckinDate>2005-21-06</CheckinDate> <CheckoutDate>2005-24-06</CheckoutDate> <NumOfNights>3</NumOfNights> <BedType>King Size</BedType> <Smoking>Non Smoking</Smoking> <PillowType>Polyester Fill</PillowType> <SpecialRequest>Godiva Dark Chocolate</SpecialRequest> </Reservation>
Bluetooth • Distance Limitations • 30 feet (10 meters) • New Technology • Communications between any electrically powered device or appliance
VPN – Virtual Private Network Allow for secure connections that “tunnel” through the Internet to connect 2 private LAN’s or Computers, which reduces costs overall.
VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol Set of facilities used to manage the delivery of voice information over the Internet. VoIP involves sending voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than by using the traditional circuit-committed protocols of the public switched telephone network
HSIA – High Speed Internet Access • Acceptable methods for providing HSIA service to guest rooms: • Wireless proximity • Telephone network • Electrical wiring system • Cable system
DSL ISDN Frame-relay T-1 T-3: OC-3/DS-3 Bandwidth
ASP – Application Service Provider Is the server model in which hardware is housed and maintained off-site, yet users can access the application and data via a web-based Internet connection.
Telephone Switches • Trunking • Trunk lines are defined as a telecommunications line between 2 switching systems. • Incoming call routing • Uses caller IDAutomatic Number Identification (ANI) information to retrieve customer records from a database and send the records and call to a specific call center operator. • DeMarc • The point where responsibility for telecom services into a building transfers from the carrier to the end user organization.
Telephone Switches • Voice over IP • Place voice and fax calls over internet connections. Does not provide HSIA or In-room internet connectivity, hotel operators to receive free telephone services. • Automated Call Distributor (ACD) • Useful for Reservations, PBX and Room Service departments. • ACDs would not be used to automatically generate Express Checkout reports. • Automatic check out is not a function of a PBX system.
Guest Room Telephones • Features that may be included • Data port sets • 2 line capability • ADA hearing impaired feature handset • Hands free speaker phone capability • One button dialing and redialing
Database Management Software • Allow users to catalog and store information for future use • Collection of related facts and figures designed to serve a specific purpose • Possible Uses: • Preparing mailing lists for marketing and promotional activities. • Help managers sort through personnel records to identify performance review dates for employees that correspond to the dates on which they were hired
Database Structures Files organized in ways that facilitate searching for data, updating data, and generating accurate, timely and useful reports for management.
Files, Records, and Fields • Files • “THE” Database • i.e... Inventory, purchases, suppliers • Records • individual information • contains “key” field • Fields • identified by type of info. • Text, Calculated, Logical, Date, etc.
Database Structures • Hierarchical • Resembles that of the root of a tree • Arranges Files, Records, and Fields • Master Records and Subordinate Records • Data inherit attributes, or rights, from it’s parent • Relational • Tables are related to each other through key field • Tabular Structure • Data appears only once and not replicated multiple times • Flat • One Large Table (Flat File) • Files are stand-alone collections of data.
Data Management Concepts • Data Warehouse • Collection of data from different sources • Provides input for decision making • The repository of all data • Data is received and stored following specific validation rules • Data Mart • Separate database designed for specific group of users (e.g. marketing, group sales, etc.) • Data is extracted from Data Warehouse to protect its integrity • Data Mining • Statistical and rule-based reasoning to findpatterns in data (e.g. forecasting occupancy) • Should be performed against the Data Mart
Other Terms • File Server - Computer that controls the flow of information along a network and stores files created by application programs, has large storage hard drive with space to share, and provides the capability to simultaneously access the same file. • Application server - Enables several users to offload specialized tasks onto a shared computer. • Secondary storage devices - Refers to Hard drives, CD-RW, DVD-RW, Zip Disks, Removable storage devices, but NOT RAM. • High Availability - Options include Multi-processors, disk arrays, redundant power supplies, but NOT Spare Memory Modules.
Central Reservation Systems • Affiliate Systems • System that services an entire chain • All properties are contractually related • Non-Affiliate Systems • Contracted to individual properties • Subscription based service • Apply to independent hotel properties • Have some type of charge or cost • Interfaces • One-Way verses Two-Way
Global Reservation Systems (GDS) • International joint ventures of diverse companies • Direct linking of: hotels, airlines, car rental companies,andtravel agencies using the internet or other private computer networks
Revenue and Yield Management Systems • Revenue Management • Program helps hotel managers determine whether a reservation request should be accepted or rejected in order to maximize revenue for a specific period of time. • Takes advantage of rate hurdles • Yield Management • The ratio of actual revenue to potential revenue. • Room rates should be higher when demand exceeds supply. • Oversell Guidelines maximize revenue potential by selling all available rooms.
Property Management System (PMS) The computer-based lodging information system that helps track guests and their special request or inquires.
PMS Front Office Applications • Reservations Module • Used to process room requests. • Most helpful in forecasting occupancy • Revenue Management Module • Maintains the room and package rates • Rooms Management Module • Maintains current room status information. • Guest Accounting Module • Maintains the guest charges and payments