Over-the-Counter (OTC), Prescription, and Herbal Drugs Zack Miller Cody Handshaw
Topic of Discussion – OTC, Prescription, and Herbal drugs • Brief History • Define the category • List of Drugs contained in it • Patterns of Use • Pharmacology, Mechanisms of Action, Absorption and Elimination • Published beneficial medical uses • Potential for Dependence • Health Concerns/Overdose Potential • Summary Questions
Brief History • In 1906, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) was established • Before this, most drugs were available without prescription • Alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and opium were included in some OTC products without notification to the users • In 1938, Congress passed The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FDC) Act which allowed the manufacturer to determine whether a drug was to be labeled prescription or nonprescription. • From this point on, drugs were classified as either prescription or OTC drugs • The FD&C act was passed in 1962 stating that OTC drugs were required to be both safe and effective.
Major OTC analgesic drugs • Four types of OTC analgesic drugs available to the public are Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen. • Because each of these types has its benefits and hazards, recommended dosage levels should be observed, and anyone with specific health problems should be aware that analgesic drugs may be harmful.
Other major classes of OTC drugs • Two other classes of OTC drugs are notable for their popularity and their potential for misuse. • The first is the variety of sleep aids, with the active ingredient of either diphenhydramine or doxylaminesuccinate. • The second is the variety of cough-and-cold remedies that generally contain some combination of antihistamine and decongestant. • The recreational use of cough-and-cold remedies containing dextromethorphan (DM, DMX) is a continuing drug abuse problem.
Top 20 types of Prescription Drugs • Lipitor • Nexium • Plavix • AdvairDiskus • Seroquel • Alilify • Singulair • Actos • Enbrel • Epogen • Remicade • Crestor • Avastin • Neulasta • OxyCotin • Cymbalta • Effexor XR • Lexapro • Lovenox • Zyprexa
Symptoms of Overdosing on Rx OTC Cold and Cough Meds. • Blurred vision • Loss of physical coordination • Intense abdominal pain • Vomiting • Uncontrolled, violent muscle spasms • Irregular heartbeat • Delirium • Death
Medical Uses • OTC drugs are used to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation, relieve cold symptoms, allergy symptoms, diminish fatigue and drowsiness, promote sleep, relieve indigestion from rebound activity, constipation, diarrhea, heartburn, treat skin infections, assist breathing, promote oral hygiene, acne, infections, hair growth, and provide diet supplements
Health Concerns/Overdose Potential • These medicines are safe and effected when you follow the directions on the label and as directed by your healthcare professional. • However, sometimes it is easy to forget that OTC drugs are still drugs, and when used improperly (taking higher-than-recommended doses, using more frequently than directed, or combining with certain other legal or illegal substances), these drugs can produce a range of potentially damaging effects. • The long term harmful effects of OTC abuse can include brain damage, seizures, coma and even death if taken improperly.
Sources • http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/prescription-over-counter-medications • http://pharmacy.about.com/od/TheDrugIndustry/a/Over-The-Counter-Medicines-Otc-Medicines.htm