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Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) Concepts

Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) Concepts

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Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) Concepts

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  1. Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) Concepts MOT Training for Incident Responders in Florida Module 4

  2. Highway Terminology Module 4

  3. Highway Terminology Standardized names and terms to identify specific features of any street, road, or highway where an incident may occur. • Reduce confusion • Improve the safety of responders • Make operations at the scene more efficient Module 4

  4. Shoulders • The pavement adjacent to travel lanes • Referenced by: • Inside or Outside Module 4

  5. Median • The center of the roadway Module 4

  6. Lane Referencing • Numbered from outside to inside • Should not be referenced as the “slow lane” or the “fast lane” • Acceleration and deceleration lanes at interchanges will not be numbered except in the case of lane drops or adds Module 4

  7. Shoulder Shoulder Outside 2 Inside 1 3 3 2 1 Median 2 Outside 1 Inside 3 2 3 1 Shoulder Shoulder 6-lane divided highway Module 4

  8. Shoulder Shoulder Shoulder Shoulder 3 2 1 3 2 1 3 2 4 1 3 2 1 Inside Inside Outside Outside Lane Drop Deceleration Lane Module 4

  9. Upstream and Downstream • Upstream • Any area of a highway or any moving traffic that is approaching the actual incident or activity area • Downstream • Area that is past the incident scene Module 4

  10. Downstream Incident Upstream Module 4

  11. Incident Definition Module 4

  12. Differences in Definition • Transportation provider definition vs. • Emergency responder definition Module 4 Source: FHWA, Incident Management Performance Measures

  13. Transportation Providers • Traffic Incident Management Handbook defines an “incident” as “any non-recurring event that causes a reduction of roadway capacity or an abnormal increase in demand” • The 2000 Highway Capacity Manual defines an “incident” as “any occurrence on a roadway that impedes normal traffic flow” Module 4

  14. Emergency Responders • Most law enforcement agencies and emergency responders seem to define an “incident” as any event to which they are dispatched or requires a “response” or action by them. Module 4

  15. Types of Incidents Module 4

  16. Predictable • Maintenance Activities • Construction Activities • Special Events Module 4

  17. Unpredictable • Accidents (crashes) • Stalled vehicles • Spilled loads • Weather • Roadway failures • Debris falling from trucks Module 4

  18. Incidents • Create non-recurring traffic congestion • 60% of all congestion • Cause secondary crashes Module 4

  19. Highway Standards • Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) • State Departments of Transportation • Local Municipal Governments Module 4

  20. MUTCD • Chapter 6I of the 2003 MUTCD • “Control of Traffic Through Traffic Incident Management Areas” Module 4

  21. Major Provisions • Classify incidents by expected duration • Recommend interagency pre-planning and management (“unified incident management”) • “Fluorescent coral” background/black letters permitted for signs in incident traffic control zones • Recommendations on use of Emergency Vehicle Lighting Module 4

  22. Incident Classification • Level 1 – Minor • under 30 minutes • Level 2 – Intermediate • from 30 minutes to 2 hours • Level 3 – Major • over 2 hours Module 4 Source: TIM Handbook & MUTCD 2003 Chapter 6

  23. Temporary Traffic Control Zones Module 4

  24. Temporary Traffic Control Zones Divided into four areas: • Advance Warning Area • Transition Area • Activity Area • Termination Area Module 4

  25. Component Parts of a Temporary Traffic Control Zone Module 4 Source: MUTCD 2003 Chapter 6

  26. Advance Warning Area • First section that informs drivers about the incident area they are approaching • Varies from a single sign or warning light on a vehicle to a series of warning signs • Examples: cones, flares, or emergency vehicles far in advance of the actual incident (crash or fire scene) Module 4

  27. Transition Area • Section of highway where road users are redirected out of their normal path • Usually involve strategic use of tapers. Module 4

  28. Taper • When emergency responders use signs, cones, flares, or blocking vehicles to direct approaching traffic from the normal traffic lanes into a fewer number of open lanes • Executed within the Transition Area of an incident scene Module 4

  29. Taper Module 4 Picture: Safe Parking…While Operating In or Near Moving Traffic, Texas FD

  30. Activity Area • Section of the highway where the work activity takes place • Comprises the Work Area, the Traffic Space and the Buffer Space Module 4

  31. Work Area • Section of highway closed to road users and set aside for responders (workers), equipment, and material • Usually delineated for road users by channelizing devices Module 4

  32. Work Area Module 4 Picture: Danger on I-95 – South Florida Sun-Sentinel.com

  33. Traffic Space • Section of highway in which road users are routed through the activity area Module 4

  34. Buffer Space • The area that separates road user flow from the work space or an unsafe area • Provides some recovery space for an errant vehicle Module 4

  35. Incident Responders Responders arriving at a traffic incident within 15 minutes of arrival on-scene should: • Estimate the magnitude of the traffic incident • Predict time duration of the traffic incident • Estimate vehicle queue length • Set up the appropriate Temporary Traffic Control for these estimates Module 4

  36. Highway Safety Principles Module 4

  37. Stopping Sight Distance • The distance traveled from the time a driver first detects the need to stop until the vehicle actually stops Module 4

  38. Perception/Reaction Distance • Distance traveled by a vehicle from the instant the driver sees an object to the instant the brakes are applied Module 4

  39. What is the typical driver’s perception/reaction time value? • 0.5 seconds • 1.0 seconds • 1.5 seconds • 2.5 seconds • 4.0 seconds • Be prepared for drivers who do not react . . . Module 4

  40. Braking Distance • Distance traveled by a vehicle from the instant the brakes lock up until the vehicle stops Module 4 Source: AASHTO Green Book 2001

  41. Total Stopping Sight Distance(based on 2.5-sec Perception/Reaction Time) 60 Mph 65 Mph 70 Mph Note:Commercial vehicles require much longer distances. Module 4

  42. Highway Safety Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Signaling Equipment Module 4

  43. Personal Protective Equipment “PPE” • Section 6E.02 of the MUTCD • Requires that workers shall wear bright, highly visible clothing when working in or near moving traffic • Fire/rescue personnel, EMS crews, law enforcement officials, and even tow truck operators • PPE – General requirements Standard 29 CFR 1910.132 (OSHA) Module 4

  44. Background Material Minimum 450 in2 Retroreflective/Combined-Performance Material Minimum Width 1.97 in Minimum Area 201 in2 The Vest shall have contiguous areas of retroreflective or combined-performance material encircling the torso – placed in a manner to provide 3600 visibility ANSI/ISEA Public Safety Vest Requirements Vest Class II Module 4 ANSI 207-2006 Standard Source: Emergency Responder Safety Institute

  45. Highway Safety Vests Vest Class III • All incident respondersshall comply with this provision no later than November 24, 2008. Module 4 Source: Federal Register / Vol. 71, No. 226 / Rules and Regulations Part 634 – Worker Visibility Sec. 634.4

  46. Question? • At night – how far away can a driver see you? Module 4 Source: ANSI/ISEA 107-1999 MADE EASY. A Quick Reference to High-Visibility Safety Apparel

  47. Traffic Control Devices Module 4

  48. Traffic Control Devices • To promote highway safety by providing for the orderly and predictable movement of all traffic and to provide guidance and warning as needed • Examples: • Signs • Channelizing devices • Lighting devices • Shadow vehicles Module 4

  49. Warning Signs • Warning signs are used to give notice of an unexpected condition or a condition that may be potentially hazardous to traffic. Module 4 Picture: KTC, Emergency Traffic Control for Responders-Training

  50. Examples of TIM Area Signs Source: MUTCD 2003 Chapter 6 Figure 6I-1 Module 4