RHETORICAL DEVICES for “The Declaration of Independence”
What is rhetoric? • The ability to use language effectively in order to persuade the listener or reader. OR • The art of using speech to persuade, influence, or please.
ETHOS: credibility (or character) of the speaker. • Before the writer can convince an audience to accept anything you say, they have to accept you as credible (believable). There are many aspects to building one’s credibility: • Is the author respectable? • Does the author have good character? • Is the author generally trustworthy? • Does the author exhibit authority on this speech topic?
LOGOS: logical argument • Logos is synonymous with a logical argument. • Does the message make sense? • Is the message based on facts, statistics, and evidence? • Will the writer’s call-to-action lead to the desired outcome that he promised?
PATHOS: emotional connection to the audience. • emotional connection to the audience • Pathos is the quality of a persuasive presentation which appeals to the emotions of the audience. • Do the words evoke feelings of … love? … sympathy? … fear? • Do the visuals evoke feelings of compassion? … envy? • Does the characterization of the competition evoke feelings of hate? contempt?
rhetorical devices CONTINUED From the “Declaration of Independence”
ANAPHORA • Anaphora: The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs Example: “That my heart has been troubled, that I have not sought this nomination, that I could not seek it in good conscience, that I would not seek it in honest self-appraisal, is not to say that I value it the less. ” – A. Stevenson
Examples of Anaphora: Tintern Abbey by William Wordsworth Five years have passed; Five summers, with the length of Five long winters! and again I hear these waters
Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare "And do you now put on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday? And do you now strew flowers in his way That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood? Be gone!"
Think about it? How/why is anaphora an effective mode of persuasion? Why would it be used?
Parallel Structure • Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.
Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling. • Mary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle
Which one is parallel? • The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner. • The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and thoroughly.
Your new training program was stimulating and a challenge. • Your new training program was stimulating and challenging.
Group Work: Identifying Rhetorical Devices in the Declaration of Independence • Identify at least one of each in the Declaration of Independence: ethos, pathos, logos, anaphora, parallel structure. • For each, you must identify a) The device used b) The example from the text (direct quote), and c) Why the device is used/the effect of the device.