Common Core State Standards How does this affect me?
In their book, "Teaching Reading in the Content Areas," 3rd. Ed., Vicki Urquhart and Dana Frazee note a sharp trend away from teaching reading and writing skills in content-area classrooms. What do you think is driving this trend?
These are the responses given: • Lack of instructional time/overstuffed curriculum 40.05% • Not enough teacher training on how to teach these skills 36.02% • Perceived lack of relevance to content-area classroom 14.65% • Lack of collaboration among departments 5.51% • Other 3.76%
The Big Shifts • Appropriate Text Complexity • Increased Reading of Informational Texts • Disciplinary Literacy • Close Reading • Text-dependent Questions • Academic Vocabulary--Tier 2 & Tier 3 words • Short & Sustained Research • Projects • Argumentative Writing
CCSS Implications for Classroom • More nonfiction • More research • Higher text complexity • More collaboration • Among teachers • Among students
CCSS Implications for Classroom • Teachers tell/summarize less • More responsibility placed on students for theirlearning • Teaching students to read as • Scientists • Historians • Mathematicians • Economists • Geographers
Text Complexity Reader and Task Quantitative Qualitative is often best measured by
Qualitative Measures Considerations: • Levels of meaning or purpose • Structure • Language conventionality and clarity • Knowledge demands CCSS, Appendix A, pages 5-6
Quantitative Measures Considerations: • Word length • Word frequency • Word difficulty • Sentence length • Text length • Text cohesion CCSS, Appendix A, page 7
Reader and Task Considerations: • Motivation • Knowledge and experience • Purpose for reading • Complexity of task assigned regarding text • Complexity of questions asked regarding text CCSS, Appendix A, pages 7-8
Increased Reading of Informational Texts • What are some of the variety of types of texts that you require students to read? • Are students expected to read each type of text differently in order to fully comprehend the information? • Please give some examples
Teaching students to read informational text(s) requires TIME For teachers to: • model For students to: • learn how • practice • share
Disciplinary Literacy • Predominates middle school to high school • What does it mean to read, write, and think through a disciplinary lens? • Navigate texts from unrelated & distinct disciplines • math, science, history, geography, music, art
Think about a regular school day – • What classes does a student attend each day? • How is reading different in each class? • What are some of the specific ways of reading in English, history, social studies, science, math, health, technical subjects…
Disciplinary Reading Range and Content • Critical to building knowledge in content areas • Requires an appreciation of norms & conventions of each discipline • Necessitates an understanding of domain-specific words and phrases
Disciplinary Reading Range and Content • Calls for an attention to precise details • Demands the capacity to evaluate intricate arguments, synthesize complex information, and follow detailed descriptions of events and concepts
Student Lens to Historian Lens: Student lens Historian lens Notice why’s and how’s Read a variety of texts critically Notice cause/effect relationships and hypotheses Critically examine • Fact collecting • Textbook • Notice who’s, what’s, where’s, and chronology of events • Truth statements
Close Reading of Complex Text “A significant body of research links the close reading of complex text—regardless if the student is a struggling reader or advanced—to significant gains in reading proficiency, and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness.” PARCC Model Content Frameworks for ELA/Literacy p. 6
Close reading • Understanding your purpose in reading • Understanding the author’s purpose in writing • Seeing ideas in a text as being interconnected • Looking for and understanding systems of meaning • Engaging a text while reading • Getting beyond impressionist reading • Formulating questions and seeking answers to those questions while reading
Establishing a Routine for Close Reading • Pre-teach the vocabulary and concepts. • Set a purpose for reading. • Model close reading.
Establishing a Routine for Close Reading • Provide guided practice and check for understanding. • Provide independent practice. • Organize discussions and debates. • Have students write about the text. Adapted from the Consortium on Reaching Excellence in Education, Inc
Comprehension Strategies All Good Readers Use Pre-reading • Review vocabulary • Make predictions • Review text features (brainstorm, predict, skim, assess prior knowledge)
Comprehension Strategies All Good Readers Use While reading • Monitor for understanding; reread if needed; summarize • Draw a visual representation of the unfolding argument • Ask questions about the main ideas as they unfold; infer • Make note of unfamiliar words, concepts, ideas to research later
Comprehension Strategies All Good Readers Use After reading: • Summarize and restate the text’s main points • Compare notes with other students • Discuss what you read • Reread, confirm predictions, reflect, question
SOAPS – One strategy for close reading • Speaker – • Who is the Speaker? The voice behind the text; what do you know/learn about him/her from reading the text? What authority does this person have to deliver the message? • Occasion – • What is the Occasion? The time and place of the piece; the situation that provoked or moved the writer to write?
SOAPS • Audience – • Who is the Audience? The group of readers to whom the piece is directed. How is the message tailored to the specific needs of a group? • Purpose – • What is the Purpose? The reason behind the text; why it was written? What is the goal of the speaker? Why does this text exist? What does the author want the reader to think or do as a result of reading this?
SOAPS • Subject – • What is the Subject? The general topic, content, ideas contained in the text. Is it specific or general, abstract or concrete, current or timeless? • What are some other strategies you have used in your classroom that help students read closely and increase comprehension?
Text-dependent Questions According to CCSS – 80%-90% of questions about a text should be text-dependent. • Level One Questions: Right There The answers to these questions can be found explicitly in the text. These are most often who, what, when, and where kinds of questions. They work on the factual level and establish evidence of basic information.
Three Levels of Questions • Level Two Questions: Think and Search The answers to these questions are not found explicitly in the text – the reader has to infer, interpret, or analyze. They are what the text suggests but does not say. These are often how and why questions.
Three Levels of Questions • Level Three Questions: Author and Me • The answers to these questions go beyond the text and are often found in parallel situations outside the text. The reader has to analyze, synthesize, and/or evaluate, using the text as a guide to explore larger issues. They often require outside knowledge or experience to answer.
Please read the following sentence and share/discuss with a person near you: THE DIFFICULTY OF YOUR SET COULD BE INCREASED IF YOU DO A JAM FOLLOWED BY A PEACH.
Could you read and comprehend the previous slide? • What gave you the most difficulty? • What do you need to know in order to really understand the sentence?
Translation: The point values you can earn on your gymnastics routine can be bigger if you include, in sequence, two particular skills on the uneven parallel bars: the "jam," which leaves the gymnast sitting on the high bar; and the "peach," where the gymnast moves from the high bar to the low bar.
THE DIFFICULTY OF YOUR SET COULD BE INCREASED IF YOU DO A JAM FOLLOWED BY A PEACH. If you figured this out, you may have already possessed the background knowledge about gymnastics that clued you in to the meaning of the statement. Can you see how crucial an understanding of the vocabulary in this instance is? Thanks to Kathleen Dugger for this example!
Academic Vocabulary —Tier 2 & Tier 3 words Building Academic Vocabulary by Marzano What are some of the ways you teach domain-specific vocabulary in your classroom? Share
Short & Sustained Research Projects • What must you teach in order for your students to be successful at researching a topic? Share: • What are some research successes in your classroom? • What are some of the ways students have presented their research?
Website evaluation • Tree octopus
Free ADE Resources • Pick up a brochure at the ADE booth • Websites for CCSS resources • ADE content area wikis • Resource lists with hyper links are posted on ADE CCSS wiki, Social studies wiki, and library media wiki
Argumentative Writing • Most difficult for students • Must anticipate counter-claim • What must your students know and be able to do to write at the level of rigor required of CC? • How are you going to get them there?
Contact Information • Maggie Herrick 501-682-6584 firstname.lastname@example.org • Shirley Fetherolf 501-682-6576 Shirley.email@example.com