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A Short History of Radio and Signal Processing in Modern Radios

A Short History of Radio and Signal Processing in Modern Radios. fred harris. 29-May 2007. Pulse Train. What The Customer Wants. What the Customer Will Pay. When the Customer wants it. The Size Customer Wants. Early Communication at a Distance †.

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A Short History of Radio and Signal Processing in Modern Radios

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  1. A Short History of Radioand Signal Processing in Modern Radios fred harris 29-May 2007

  2. Pulse Train

  3. What The Customer Wants

  4. What the Customer Will Pay

  5. When the Customer wants it.

  6. The Size Customer Wants.

  7. Early Communication at a Distance† (†Communicating Faster Than A Person Can Run) 776 BC Homing pigeons used to send message – the winner of the Olympic Games to the Athenians. 200- 100 BC Relay stations use fire messages to relay messages- station to station. 37 AD Heliographs - mirrors send messages to Roman Emperor Tiberius. 1793 AD Claude Chappe invents the first long-distance optical semaphore telegraph line. 

  8. Very Early Communications at a Distance: Free Space Acoustic and Optical Channels Drums, Whistles, Cannon Fire Claude Chappe 1793 Optical Telegraph Smoke Signals, Beacon Fires Semaphore, Ship Flags, Heliograph, Signal (Aldis) Lamp

  9. Signal Fires: Early Warning of Approaching Enemy

  10. Carrier Pigeons in WW-1

  11. transistor Shannon, television A Time Line CDMA-2000, WLAN, CR GSM,CDMA, SDR digital signal processing, DR audio broadcast Marconi's experiments Hertz's experiments Mrs. Harris’s First Born Maxwell equations 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030

  12. Telecommunications!Applying Maxwell Equations to communication Systems Maxwell's equations (1873) magnetic field electric field electric displacement magnetic flux density current density volume charge density . . James Clerk Maxwell, 1831 – 1879

  13. Milestones in Electromagnetic Communications H.C. Orsted, 1777-1841 “Electrici and Magneticam” 1820 Fraday, 1791-1867, Induction 1831 J.C. Maxwell, 1831-1879, “Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism”, 1873 H.L. Helmholtz, 1821-1894 Predicted E-M Waves Heinrich Hertz, 1857-1894 Radio Propagation 1887 G. Marconi, Radio 1895 Valdemar Poulsen, Continuous Radio Waves 1905 Lee de Forest, Audion 1907 Edward Armstrong, Super-regenerative, Superheterodyne 1917 Frequency Modulation, 1934

  14. Disruptive Technology The electric telegraph arrived in the early 19th century and redefined communications at a distance. It required the confluence of three ingredients: the science of electromagnetism, the ability to generate or store electricity the Industrial Revolution to build the required infrastructure

  15. Communication at a Distance withElectricity and Magnetism • 1831 Joseph Henry invents the first electric telegraph. • 1843 Samuel Morse invents the first • long distance electric • telegraph line. • Cyrus Field’s Company Lays the • Transatlantic Cable. • 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents • the electric telephone. • 1889 Almon Strowger patents the direct dial telephone automatic telephone exchange. Brunel’s Great Eastern

  16. We Need Some Source Coding Here Samuel Thomas von Sömmering’s (1808-10) "Space Multiplexed" Electrochemical Telegraph

  17. Cooke and Wheatstone Telegraph B 2 out of 5 Coding (5*4 = 20 )

  18. The Cooke and Wheatstone first commercial electrical telegraph entered use on the Great Western Railway on April 9, 1839. It ran for 13 miles from Paddington Station to West Drayton On January 1, 1845 John Tawell was apprehended following the use of a needle telegraph message from Slough to Paddington. This is thought to be the first use of the telegraph to apprehend a murderer. The message was: A murder has just been committed at Salt Hill and the suspected Murderer was seen to take a first class ticket to London by the train that left Slough at 7:42 pm. He is in the garb of a Kwaker with a brown great coat on which reaches his feet. He is in the last compartment of the second first-class carriage

  19. Single Needle and Variable Length Code Cooke-Wheatstone Single Needle Telegraph (c 1850)

  20. THE TELEPHONE1876 - Alexander Graham Bell invents the Telephone. He offers the patent to Western Union for $100,000. The President of the Telegraph Company, appointed a committee to investigate the offer. The often quoted report reads in part: The Telephone purports to transmit the speaking voice over telegraph wires. We found that the voice is very weak and indistinct, and grows even weaker when long wires are used between the transmitter and receiver. Technically, we do not see that this device will be ever capable of sending recognizable speech over a distance of several miles. Bell wants to install a “telephone device" in every city. The idea is idiotic on the face of it. “We do not recommend its purchase."

  21. Early Telephone Instruments Ericsson "Eiffel Tower" Telephone, 1885  11 digit Potbelly Dial CandlestickStrowger 1905 Dial CandlestickAutomatic Electric 1921 Footnote: Western Electric 1877, 5 Phones Engineers were 1894, 250,000 Phones wrong! Very Wrong! 1906, 7,500,000 Phones

  22. Communication at a Distance by Electromagnetic Radiation (Radio or Wireless) 1894 Guglielmo Marconi improves wireless telegraphy. 1902 Guglielmo Marconi transmits radio signals across the Atlantic Ocean. 1914 First cross continental telephone call made. 1916 First radios with tuners different stations. 1930 First television broadcasts in the United States.

  23. Wireless Radio Analog Radio Digital Radio DSP Radio Software Defined Radio Cognitive Radio The Players

  24. It all Started with….. Heinrich Rudolph Hertz,1847-1894

  25. Shocking! 2. Spark Produces ElectromagneticWaves 3. Electromagnetic waves induce voltage in resonator, producing small spark in spark gap. 1. Induction Coil Produces High Voltage

  26. Guglielmo Marconi, 1874-1937 Spark Gap Transmitter December 12 1901

  27. Early Radios Were Mechanical(Many Moving Parts) SPARK TRANSMITTERS

  28. Spark Gap Wireless Transmitter (Damped Oscillations)

  29. Sparks came in all sizes

  30. Marine Spark Transmitter Radio Operators aboard Ship Were Called Sparky Because they Operated the Spark Transmitter

  31. Marconi Tower Radio Mobile Communications: Communicate to a moving Train 150 ft Antenna stretched across 3-railway cars (187.4 kilocycles, 1600 Meters) 2 KW 500 cycle quenching transmitter

  32. The Eiffel Tower The Eiffel Tower was built for an industrial exposition (1889) and the centenary of the French Revolution. It created amazement and outrage. The previous world champion, America's Washington Monument was half the tower's height. The tower held the world’s title for the world’s tallest structure till 1930, when it was surpassed by the Chrysler Building. Eiffel tried to find practical applications for his tower. He wanted the tower to work, to pay its way. He could find no practical application for the tower! Parisians spoke seriously of tearing the tower down. Then Eiffel discovered the 20th century's killer app for towers, Marconi's radio! The tower started broadcasting signals in 1904 and by 1908, the French military had installed a radio espionage nest, where they could eavesdrop on German and Austro-Hungarian stations. Due to Marconi’s invention, the tower's future was secure.

  33. Valdemar Poulsen, 1869-1942 Continuous (Undamped) Carrier Arc Generator

  34. Poulsen Arc Transmitter

  35. Lee De Forest, 1877-1961 Put those sparks to rest! Patent No. 879532

  36. The path to the Triode Thermonic Valve,Thomas Edison, John Fleming, Lee de Forest

  37. Edwin Armstrong, 1890-1954 1912 regenerative receiver

  38. Regenerative Receiver A little Feedback Goes a Long Way

  39. Tuned RF Radio

  40. Early Mobile Communications It may not be safe to drive while using your mobile phone!

  41. Edwin Armstrong’s Super Heterodyne Receiver From Disclosure: June 3, 1918

  42. Replacing the Vacuum Tube 1947 Solid State Amplifier Shockley, Brattain and Bardeen

  43. Integrated Circuits 1958 Jack Kilby, TI Robert Noyce, Intel Kilby Awarded Nobel Prize in 2000 Noyce Founded Intel Ted Hoff worked for Noyce

  44. We all own a Billion Transistors NEXT-GENERATION VIRTEX FAMILY FROM XILINX TO TOP ONE BILLION TRANSISTOR MARK The 1 billion transistor processor: who will be first? Semiconductor International, March 2003 Future Microprocessors - How to use a Billion Transistors September 1997 issue of IEEE Computer Eiffel Tower Contains 18,084 Parts It is Fastened together by 2.5 Million Rivets The World grows more transistors than it grows grains of rice!

  45. Harry Nyquist,(1889-1960) The Sampling Theorem fS>BW

  46. Analog-to-Digital Converter

  47. Digital-to-Analog Converter

  48. Start of the Modern eraADC and DSP Insertion

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