IMPORTANT REMINDER • Did you have evidence that you completed 24 game questions? (3 topics X 8 questions)
Topic 4: The Crusades Series of Medieval “Holy” Wars 1095-1291
Upcoming Critical Thinking Activity • Due January 25th • To what extent could the crusades be justified? • OR • Was the medieval church make a more postive or negative impact on Europe and the world?
Crusader Medieval European Christian Warrior involved in a religious war
Crusades • Medieval European Church’s attempt to reclaim Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims. (p.1); almost 20crusades • lasted almost 200 years: 1095 – 1291 (P.2) • several hundred thousand Europeans participated • Involved: Franks, Saxons, Normans, and Italians • knights, Lords (Dukes,Barons), and Kings • Mammoth undertaking! Religious wars!
Read on own : Background Before Crusades: 800 AD - 1095 • Europe was building Cathedrals, churches, monasteries, especially the Frank Kingdom Roman Catholic Church was growing in power, land, wealth from: • 1. tithes, indulgences, and generous gifts • 2. strict rules and expectations • 3. harsh punishments of the inquisition; fear • 4. being political players/ leaders and more….
Why did Church call the crusades? • request from Constantinople, Byzantine empire • center of Byzantine or Orthodox Church • Muslim warriors had moved up from Arabia long ago (600’s) and had slowly taken over many lands, including the Holy Land and Jerusalem (called Saracenes or Seljuk Turks) * Muslim warriors had just defeated the Byzantine army about a decade earlier in the 1070’s
Islam and Muslims • 610 Mohammed started Islam • followers called Muslims • one true god: Allah • (God of Ishmaelites, Abraham and Hagar) • holy cities: Mecca and Jerusalem • holy book: Koran • pray 5 times/day, fast during Ramadan, • make a pilgrimage to Mecca, give money to • poor,
Islam and Muslims • Pray facing Mecca on carpets at designated times • In beautiful dome shaped worship places called Mosques • Called to prayer by a muezzin who stands in a tower called a mineret
Dharhan Mosque close to where Levi’s grandparents lived in Saudi Arabia back in 1978-1985
Watch short clips about Islam • Islamic Call to Prayer 0:00 - whenever • Cry of the Muslims Call to Prayer in Saudi Arabia 0:00 -0:45
Watch short clip • Jerusalem’s Three faiths 0:00 – 1:54 • First, Jewish religion of the Hebrews (1200 BC ) • Then, Christianity ( 33 AD ) • Then, Muslims (600’s AD )
Page 4 • Mohammed also taught concept of jihad: to struggle in the way of god ( also means to struggle against the ways of non-Muslims) • Muslim rulers: caliphs, who led many battles to spread religion and expand area • Medieval muslim warriors (next slides) • By 750 AD caliphs established vast Islamic Empire, including northern India, middle east, north Africa, southern Spain • (Spaniards would have their own crusades)