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Preventative Medicine

Preventative Medicine

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Preventative Medicine

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  1. Preventative Medicine By Lauren Backor, Taylor Marriott, Jessica Schumaker, and Amy Wurbs

  2. “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food.”-- Hippocrates

  3. Preventative vs. Preventive? • Is there a difference? • preventative(adjective) - preventing or contributing to the prevention of disease; preventive medicineSynonyms: preventive • Therefore, the two are generally used interchangeably. http://define.ansme.com/words/p/preventative.html

  4. So what exactly is preventive medicine? • The branch of medicine dealing with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health practices. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/p1/preventi.asp

  5. A little Background Info… • Preventive medicine has been a medical specialty since 1948. • Board-certification is offered in the areas of: • General Preventive Medicine and Public Health • Occupational Health • Aerospace Medicine • Until recently preventive medicine was mainly the domain of the U.S. Public Health Service or state and local health departments, but it is now viewed as important by health care providers. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/p1/preventi.asp; http://www.brainshark.com/brainshark/vu/view.asp?pi=22825&layout=nobanner

  6. Number of Certified Preventive Medicine Physicians Nationwide Statistics based on a study completed July, 2001 http://www.brainshark.com/brainshark/vu/view.asp?pi=22825&layout=nobanner

  7. Areas ofResearch Involved • Causes of disease • Vaccination against those diseases for which the causes are known • Environmental concerns and health • Public health and hygiene http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/p1/preventi.asp

  8. The Threat of Disease… http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/tables/2002/02hus032.pdf

  9. Fixing the problem… “In order to combat the diseases of this wealthy nation (namely heart disease, cancer, and injuries), we need to target individuals’ poor health choices and habits and develop appropriate tools for population communication which can effectively change behavior.” - Dr. T. Lewis Medical Director, Community Health and Prevention Intermountain Health Care, Salt Lake City, UT http://www.brainshark.com/brainshark/vu/view.asp?pi=22825&layout=nobanner

  10. So where does Horticulture come in? • It has been found that several nutrients found in common fruits and vegetables aid in preventing diseases and other health problems. • Vitamins C & E and Fiber are a few of these elements that aid in preventing some of the most dangerous diseases that plague Americans each year. L.E. Bounds, Health and Fitness: A Guide to a Healthy Lifestyle

  11. Antioxidants: What are they and what do they do? • Antioxidants are natural substances in foods, like vitamins C & E. • They protect from disease by preventing the harmful effects of oxygen free radicals on your body. • Oxygen free radicals are formed as cells in your body combine with oxygen to make energy. • Free radicals also come from smoking or being exposed to radiation or sunlight from the environment. http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/agepages/lifeext.htm

  12. Preventative Medicine and Heart Disease

  13. Preventing Heart Disease • What is heart disease? • More accurately, Coronary Artery Disease • Arteries, which nourish the heart, become clogged. • 7 million Americans affected • 1.5 million heart attacks and 500,000 deaths every year wwww.mothernature.com/Library/bookshelf/Books/41/63.cfm

  14. Current Treatments for Heart Disease • Heart Disease • Coronary Bypass Surgery • 300,000 per year at a cost of $30,000 each • Disadvantages • Obviously, the surgery is costly. • Temporary solution- bypasses clog up too www.mothernature.com/Library/bookshelf/Books/41/63.cfm

  15. Measures to Prevent Heart Disease • Treating High blood Pressure and lowering Cholesterol • Quit smoking • Lose weight • More exercise • Stress management • Social support www.mothernature.com/Library/bookshelf/Books/41/63.cfm

  16. Other Preventative Measures • Plants!

  17. Some Plants that Prevent Heart Disease www.dhushara.com, www.physsportsmed.com

  18. Phytochemicals • Provide protection to plant from sunlight and environmental factors. • May also protect humans when consumed. • Protect by ridding the body of “free radicals”, which are chemical reaction waste products, in the blood. • Free radicals have no known purpose and seem to be linked to the destruction of healthy cells. • Phytochemicals produce enzymes that to rid the body of free radicals www.keynews.org/archives/a_diet.htm

  19. Members of the carotene family, pigments that give yellow/orange color to plants Best source of lycopene is cooked tomato Studies show that consumption of carotenoids, along with folate, reduces risk of heart attack by 40% Lycopenes www.mothernature.com, www.utoronto.ca

  20. Other Preventative Chemicals • Alpha-linolenic acid • Contains vitamin E • Reduction of inflammation from exercise and the risk of heart disease • Phenolic compounds and Flavanoids • Could explain the “French paradox” of lower rate of heart disease while most French a moderate drinkers • Phenolic compounds found in grape skin and is protective against LDL cholesterol (bad) more than Vitamin E www.mothernature.com, www.physsportsmed.com

  21. Evidence • Is there evidence of the benefits of these phytochemicals for preventing heart disease? • YES- Dr. Dean Ornish of California has given us significant evidence of the benefits of phytochemicals, especially in heart disease. www.mothernature.com

  22. Who is Dr. Ornish? • Surprised the medical world by being the first researcher to reverse heart disease! • How did he do it? • A combination a low-tech. Methods • Exercise • Yoga • Meditation • Support groups • Most importantly-a very low fat vegetarian diet www.mothernature.com

  23. Dr. Ornish’s Approach • Prevention, Prevention, Prevention • The National Institutes of Health (NIH) does recognize the value of prevention, even to reduce the cost of health care for expensive heart surgeries • Ornish’s recommendation for prevention, as yet unconventional, is vegetable soup www.mothernature.com

  24. Medistrone • Garlic, onions, ginger, and red pepper are added to prevent blood clots that lead to heart attack • Tomatoes added for lycopenes and GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid), which reduce blood pressure and strengthen heart muscles • Other ingredients added to lower cholesterol (beans, carrots), antioxidants added to de-clog artery plaque (broccoli, potatoes) www.mothernature.com

  25. Cancer Prevention “Cancer is a prominent killer of Americans—second only to heart disease—and responsible for more than half a million deaths yearly. The good news is that scientific validation for the protective power of food is accumulating…” -Jill E. Stansbury, N.D., Nutrition Science News, 8/99

  26. What is Cancer? • An abnormal cell that begins to multiply out of control • These cells form tumors that invade healthy tissue • The cancer can then spread to other parts of the body • Carcinogens promote the development of cancerous cells • Inhibitors can keep the cells from growing Foods for Cancer Prevention, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, www.pcrm.org

  27. How does your diet affect cancer? • According to the National Cancer Institute, 80% of all cancers are due to identifiable factors • NCI estimates that 35% of cancer deaths may be related to dietary factors • NCI attributes more cancer deaths to diet than any other cause, including tobacco (30%) and alcohol -Foods for Cancer Prevention, www.pcrm.org -Let Food Be Thy Medicine, Michigan State University Agricultural Engineering Newsletter, Sept/Oct 2001

  28. 5 A Day for Better Health program • Encourages Americans to eat 5 to 9 servings of fruits and vegetables every day for better health • Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute • The program is the largest public/private partnership for nutrition education • Since the program’s beginning in 1991, an adult’s average consumption of fruits and vegetables rose from 3.9 to 4.6 servings per day National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

  29. What does the program recommend? • Children ages 2-6 should eat 5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day • Children older than age six, active women, and teens should eat 7 servings per day • Active teen boys and men should eat 9 servings per day • Fresh, frozen, dried, juiced, and canned fruits and vegetables all count toward the 5-9 servings National Cancer Institute, www.5aday.gov

  30. Does this diet help prevent cancer? • The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) published a report based on 217 observational studies • The evidence demonstrated conclusively that vegetables and fruits protect against cancer • When consuming a variety of vegetables, 69-80% of studies found an inverse association with cancer risk • For fruit in general, 64% of studies found an inverse association with cancer risk • Consuming at least 5 servings of fruit and vegetables a day cuts overall cancer risk in half National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

  31. How does dietary fat affect cancer risk? • Studies of populations in countries that consume high-fat diets have higher incidence and death rates for many cancer types than countries with low-fat diets • Fat increases hormone production and can therefore raise breast cancer risks • Fat also stimulates the production of bile acids which have been linked to colon cancer • NCI recommends that Americans lower the percent of fat in their diet to a maximum of 30% Let Food Be Thy Medicine, Michigan State University Agricultural Engineering Newsletter, Sept/Oct 2001

  32. Some foods that may reduce cancer risk -American Cancer Society, www.cancer.org -www.aboutproduce.com

  33. Cancer-Preventive Foods Let Food Be Thy Medicine, Michigan State University Agricultural Engineering Newsletter, Sept/Oct 2001

  34. Which fruits and vegetables should I eat? • The WCRF review supported a broad recommendation for increasing overall fruit and vegetable consumption in order to reduce cancer risk • The recommendation remains broad because the specific things in plants that protect from cancer haven’t been identified with certainty • Relevant substances include phytochemicals, carotenoids, antioxidants, and vitamins National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.gov

  35. Anti-Aging

  36. Overlooking the Power of Prevention • $654 billion (half the health care budget) goes to the treatment of degenerative diseases. • Less than 5% of that is spent on prevention! • Only by improving the quality of our health can we improve the quantity of our life. Source: Meyerowitz, Steve. Power Juices Super Drinks. Kensington, 2000.

  37. Free Radicals • Most widely accepted theory of aging • Hit healthy cells and oxidize them • Example of oxidation is rusting metal • Damage DNA molecules causing them to mutate or die • Because antioxidants render free radicals harmless, they are considered a cornerstone of any anti-aging program. Source: Meyerowitz, Steve. Power Juices Super Drinks. Kensington, 2000.

  38. Enzymes • Are like a fountain of youth • Powerful antioxidants • Found in fresh living foods • Best sources: • Raw fruits, vegetables, and sprouts • All nutrients and vitamins useless without interaction with enzymes

  39. Enzymes • Relieve symptoms of aging including inflammatory diseases such as arthritis • Enzyme telomerase may control biological clock – elongates telomere, which lengthens lifespan of cells and thus human life itself. Sources: Steffan, C., et al. Enzyme treatment in comparison with immune complex determination in rheumatoid arthritis. Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie. 44:51-56, 1985. Turning on telomerase to stop cell aging. Life Extension. 4(2):41-46, 1998.

  40. Plant estrogens • Similar to human estrogen but without the side effects. • 3 types: • Isoflavanes (fruits, vegetables, beans) • Lignans (grains) • Coumestans (sprouts, alfalfa) Source: “Environmental estrogens and other hormones,” CBR, Tulane, and Xavier Universities, New Orleans, 1997.

  41. Important Nutrients • Coenzyme Q10 (retards death of cells) • MSM (Methyl-Sulfonyl-Methane) • (prevents loss of collagen in skin) • Vitamins C and E (major antioxidants) Source: Malik, N.S., et al. Vitamins and analgesics in the prevention of collagen aging. Age and Aging. 25:279-284, 1996.

  42. Foods for Longevity • Sprouts (alfalfa, radish, broccoli, clover, and soybean sprouts) • Spinach • Grapes and Berries • Cantaloupe • Garlic Source: Meyerowitz, Steve. Power Juices Super Drinks. Kensington, 2000.

  43. Herbs for Longevity • Ginseng (may slow aging process by improving body’s ability to use and absorb oxygen) • Ginkgo Biloba (enhances age-related memory impairment) • Green Tea (benefits immune system, protection from cancer and strokes, lowers blood pressure) Sources: Huguet, F., et al. Decreased cerebral 5-HT1A receptors during aging: reversal by ginkgo biloba extract. Journal Of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 46: 316-318, 1994. Serafina, M., et al. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 50: 28-32, 1996.

  44. Lifestyle is a choice. If you choose to live healthfully beginning now, it can not only add years to your life, but life to your years.