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Pulau Bukom: Background Information: PowerPoint Presentation
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Pulau Bukom: Background Information:

Pulau Bukom: Background Information:

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Pulau Bukom: Background Information:

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  1. Environmental Problems Surrounding Singapore's Southern Islands Pulau Bukom St John's Island Sentosa Island • Pulau Bukom: • Background Information: Small Islands located about 5km South of Mainland Singapore and is home to oil and chemical storage facilities. • Common Environmental problems in the area: Oil Spills. The Island is very prone to oil spills as the Pulau Bukom group of Islands is home to oil and storage facilities. For example, in January 2007, a major oil spill from a tanker at the Busing Terminal brought pollution to the island's waters. Pulau Busing was a feeding and roosting ground for migratory shore birds, and this oil spill caused damage to these birds. • Oil spills can have the following negative effects: 1) cause hypothermia in marine birds by reducing or destroying the insulation and waterproofing properties of their feathers 2) poisoning of wildlife higher up the food chain if they eat large amounts of other organisms that have taken oil into their tissues; 3) cause interference with breeding by making the animal too ill to breed, interfering with breeding behaviour such as a bird sitting on their eggs, or by reducing the number of eggs a bird will lay; 4) damage to the airways and lungs of marine mammals and turtles, congestion, pneumonia, emphysema and even death by breathing in droplets of oil, or oil fumes or gas; 5) damage to a marine mammal's or turtle's eyes, which can cause ulcers, conjunctivitis and blindness, making it difficult for them to find food, and sometimes causing starvation; 6) irritation or ulceration of skin, mouth or nasal cavities; damage to and suppression of a marine mammal's immune system, sometimes causing secondary bacterial or fungal infections; 7) damage to red blood cells; 8) organ damage and failure such as a bird or marine mammal's liver; damage to a bird's adrenal tissue which interferes with a bird's ability to maintain blood pressure, and concentration of fluid in its body; decrease in the thickness of egg shells; stress; 9) damage to fish eggs, larvae and young fish; 10) contamination of beaches where turtles breed causing contamination of eggs, adult turtles or newly hatched turtles; 11) damage to estuaries, coral reefs, seagrass and mangrove habitats which are the breeding areas of many fish and crustaceans, interfering with their breeding; 12) tainting of fish, crustaceans, molluscs and algae; 13) interference with a baleen whale's feeding system by tar-like oil, as this type of whale feeds by skimming the surface and filtering out the water; and poisoning of young through the mother, as a dolphin calf can absorb oil through it's mothers milk. • Solutions to the problem: 1) More can be done to ensure that the oil spill is not as devastating to the wildlife. For example, the government can be more efficient in cleaning up oil spills and respond faster to it, to prevent that much damage being done to the wildlife. 2) Machine parts and piping systems must also be checked regularly in order to ensure 3) Shipping companies can incorporate oil pollution control systems and components into the ships to reduce oil pollution 4) Companies must ensure that their personnel are well trained in order to prevent any mistakes by any inadequately trained personnel which might lead to and oil spill • Background Information: • St John’s Island houses several government facilities, although are still portions of land that are accessible to public. St John’s Island also has short stretches of natural shores that have exquisite corals and reef life. There also a patch of mangroves available on the island. In recent times, the western end of St John’s Island hosts a $30million Marine Aquaculture Centre. It is also home to swimming lagoons, beaches, picnic grounds, trekking routes and soccer fields. The island is also used for a myriad of leisure activities, like swimming, camping and chalets. • Common Environmental Problems: • Litter, due to St John’s Island being used for various recreational activities. Litter can result in a lot of environmental problems. As listed below: • Litter is a threat to public health. Litter attracts • vermin and is a breeding ground for bacteria. Items • such as broken glass and syringes can be a health • hazard in public places. • Litter can be a fire hazard. Accumulated litter and • carelessly discarded cigarette butts are potential fire • hazards. • Litter looks bad. Litter negatively affects the image • of places, especially tourist locations. • Litter attracts litter. Litter sends out a message that • people do not care for the environment and that it is • acceptable to litter. • Litter can harm or kill wildlife. Plastic litter can • choke or suffocate birds and marine life. Carelessly • discarded containers can trap small mammals. In St John’s Island, the litter • can harm the exquisite coral and reef life present around the island • Litter harms our waterways. Organic matter, such • as dog litter, leaves and grass clippings, pollutes our waterways. • http://www.praguepost.cz/PPEF/09SC030219.pdf • Solutions to the problems: • Encourage the public to be more environmentally friendly and to dispose of rubbish properly • Provide more rubbish bins around the island so it is more convenient for people to dispose of rubbish and discourage littering • Limit the number of visitors to St John’s Island at any one time to prevent crowding, which might result in more littering • Policies can be in place to ensure that visitors to the island clear up their mess when they leave • Fines can be in place should visitors be caught littering • Proper education to children, who are the future working class citizens, about not littering can be an effective method to prevent littering from happening in the future. • Background Information: • Sentosa is a popular island resort. • Five million visitors annually. • Attractions include : • 1. A 2km long sheltered beach • 2. Fort Siloso • 3. 2 golf courses and 2 5-star hotels • 4. Upcoming Resort Worlds at Sentosa, featuring the new theme park Universal • Studios Singapore • Common Environmental Problems: Reclamation work on the island, as well as tourism of the popular island resort could bring about negative impacts on the ecology and environment of and around Sentosa, which include: Seawater Pollution and Damaged Coral Reefs/Ecology, Land Pollution • Seawater Pollution and Damaged Coral Reefs/Ecology • Reclamation work was carried out on Sentosa from 1979-1980 • Reclamation work and coastal development are threats to marine flora and fauna • Richness of marine fauna and flora has dropped a fair bit over the past 40 years • Construction and land reclamation has caused changes in water circulation and has increased sedimentation. • Sedimentation is a major source of reef degradation. • Land is reclaimed by dumping sand and dirt directly onto coral reef flats and shallow water. • These add to the erosion of beaches and sediment run-off • Seawater pollution by erosion and sediment run-off • Smothers the corals and leads to the degradation of the reef. • Increased sedimentation also leads to a change in the composition of marine fauna, favoring more resilient species. • Dredging destroys coral reefs and causes increased turbidity of water • This causes aquatic plants to be unable to photosynthesise. • This impact is expected to intensify with the construction of the Integrated Resorts. • Land-based pollution is also a source of pollution. • Solutions/Efforts: • Marine life forms could be relocated to a suitable site elsewhere • Measures are considered during the engineering design to protect the remaining on the site. • Construction methods used must ensure that intrusion into coral pavement areas be limited and carefully monitored. • Erosion can be mitigated by using retaining walls like rock barriers, silt retention barriers, etc • Prevent refuse and waste water produced during construction from entering into drains and sea • “Sentosa Development Corporation Act” : the corporation may “take such measures as are necessary for the prevention of pollution of the waters and waterways of Sentosa.” • Systems for solid waste management, sewerage and drainage ensured that land-based sources of pollution were kept well under control • Government to spend $2b to tackle pollution. • Source: “Environmental Impact Assessment of Sentosa Integrated Resort” from http://www.slideshare.net/micamonkey/environmental-impact-assessment-of-sentosa-integrated-resort • Source: “Govt to spend $2b to tackle pollution” from http://www.recyclingpoint.com.sg/Articles/1995Jun5Govttospend2b.htm • Land Pollution • Sentosa is a popular place to visit for both locals and tourists • Ungracious visitors leave litter and pollute the land • With the opening of the IRs, tourism of Sentosa would be boosted, but land pollution likely to become worse • Greater stream of tourists and incentive travelers • Environment to be innocent victim of ungracious visitors • Higher tendency to litter, causing land pollution levels to be on the rise • Land pollution causes/intensifies seawater pollution as well • Source: “Environmental Impact Assessment of Sentosa Integrated Resort” from http://www.slideshare.net/micamonkey/environmental-impact-assessment-of-sentosa-integrated-resort • Solutions/Efforts : • Enforce stricter laws on littering • Encourage recycling (perhaps by putting recycle bins around the island) • Ensure good solid waste management Jurong Island • Background Information: • The island is home to over 94 leading petroleum, petrochemical, specialty chemical and supporting companies, who together, have made a total investment of more than S$31 billion in fixed assets on site. • These include BASF, BP, Celanese, ExxonMobil, DuPont, Mitsui Chemicals, Chevron Oronite, Shell, Singapore Petroleum Company and Sumitomo Chemical. • Jurong Island's refineries process 1.3 million barrels of crude oil per day. • Petrochemical industry-related activities can be expected to rise, with the construction of underground rock caverns to store crude oil, condensates, naphtha and gas-oil, due to be completed this year. • Such industrial activities have a negative ecological impact on the island itself as well as its surroundings • Common Environmental Problems: • The industrial activity of Jurong Island can harm the environment in these ways, among others: Air Pollution, Seawater Pollution. • Air Pollution • Rapid industrialization will bring about deterioration in air quality if emissions are not curbed. • Aerosol sampling in areas near Jurong Island (SSC and NUS) • Findings – Elemental Composition: • High concentration of sulfate pollutants due to S sources in Jurong Island • Reference: “Singapore’s Country Report on Air Pollution Monitoring” from http://www.cleanairnet.org/caiasia/1412/articles-60005_report.pdf • Solutions/Efforts: • Encouraging industries to use cleaner fuel. • Industries on Jurong Island must use natural gas, a clean fuel. • $250m to be spent on world-class hydrogen facility in Jurong Island which will be built to meet emission standards (Hydrogen is used to reduce sulphur content in fuels) • ENV’s scheme to conduct source emission tests, thereby ensuring industries monitor their exhaust emissions regularly • Regular inspections by ENV of industries to ensure that pollution control equipment is maintained and operated properly • Strict control measures to take care of accidental pollution by industries. • Raising the height of chimneys of factories so that pollutant gas released from chimneys will reach upper strata of atmosphere. • Reference : “Framework for environmentally sustainable cities in ASEAN” from www.aseansec.org/files/bestpractice_clean_air.doc • Reference: “Air Quality” from http://www.nea.gov.sg/cms/ccird/pg_18_23.pdf • Reference: “Air Pollution” from http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/environmental-pollution/air-pollution-effects.php • Seawater Pollution • High number of petrochemical plants in Jurong Island • Jurong Island’s surrounding seawater has a relatively high pollution level • Use of heat-exchangers + High inlet temperatures • High risk environment particular w.r.t pitting and crevice corrosion • Potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that the seawater around Jurong Island appears to be more aggressive w.r.t pitting corrosion than standard artificial seawater • Due to total organic carbon content, which has sources from pollution • Reference:: “Corrosion of Potential Heat-Exchanger Materials in Singapore Seawater” from http://www.electrochem.org/dl/ma/206/pdfs/0715.pdf • Solutions/Efforts : • Laws to punish industries that do not dispose off industrial waste through proper means • Regular checks on industries to ensure adherence to laws • Laws prohibiting disposal of industrial waste into the sea Done by: Timothy Ng Yi Ming 4P1(28) Timothy Tan Jia Jie 4P1(29)