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RECRUITMENT & SELECTION. Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity. HUMAN RESOURCES PLAN. Recruitment & Selection. R & S process. Selection. Aims. Recruitment. Legislation. References. Internal promotion External recruitment Recruitment consultants. Testing. Roles & responsibilities.
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RECRUITMENT & SELECTION Managing Diversity and Equal Opportunity
HUMAN RESOURCES PLAN Recruitment & Selection R & S process Selection Aims Recruitment Legislation References Internal promotion External recruitment Recruitment consultants Testing Roles & responsibilities Assessment Centres Stages Interview Application forms Recruitment Ad
Recruitment and selection: the processes by which org’s solicit, contact & interest potential appointees, and then est whether it will be appropriate to appoint any of them. • Recruitment: selecting a supply of possible candidates for positions within an enterprise. • Selection: choosing from a number of candidates the one most suitable for a specified position.
Choosing the right candidate for a job or selecting the right person for promotion, is a critical org decision. • The overall aim of an org’s recruitment & selection process is to obtain the quality & quantity of employees required to fulfill the objectives of the org. That is, finding the right person, at the right time, and placing him/her in the right position, in order to ensure that he/she is doing the right thing.
Nature of the job – all the tasks performed by the jobholder • The Recruitment process: Job analysis – detailed study of the job Job description – purpose & duties of the job Person specification characteristics & qualities Job advertisement
Definition: selection is a process of choosing from a number of candidates the most suitable for a specified position. • The thoroughness of a selection exercise will depend on: • The consequences of faulty selection • Time & finances available • Company policy The selection process becomes more important the longer the length of the training period, since this represents a considerable investment on the part of the organization.
SELECTION REVIEWING APPLICATION FORMS INTERVIEWING REFERENCE CHECKING TESTING Medical examinations Group selection methods Assessment centres
Stage 1 Agree vacancy to be filled – understand job Job analysis – sort out KSAO needed to do the job The R & S process Stage 2 Recruitment Attract a field of candidates – decide where suitable Applicants can be found & persuade them to apply Stage 3 Sorting candidates – find out if candidates have Suitable KSAO Stage 4 Selection interviews – make actual choice Stage 5 Selection Induction – ensure new recruit starts with enthusiasm & settles down quickly Stage 6
Job Analysis Definition: A JA refers to the examination about the facts about a specific job to determine its essential component factors & the qualities required by the employee to perform it satisfactorily. It is a method of obtaining facts about a job in such a way that it can be used for the purposes of: • Job evaluation • Defining job requirements • Training
A JA can be used for the • Placement • Selection • Training & Promotion of employees • Job evaluation
The purpose of a Job description: • A job description specifies the: • Tasks details & responsibilities • Sets authority limits • Distinguishes accountability limits, & • Outlines the org relationships that the job entails.
The purpose of the person specification: • The PS is an interpretation of the kind of person most suitable for the job. It contains a list of the attributes that the ideal candidate would possess & by which candidates for the job can be measured.
Recruit or Promote • Several alternatives to external recruitment: • Promotion • Secondment • Closing the job down, by sharing responsibilities • Rotating jobs among staff, so that the vacant job is covered by different staff
Preparing recruitment adverts • Advertising method will depend upon: • Type of organisation • Type of job • Whether the advertisement will be for internal or external recruitment or both • The choice of medium
Content of advert should be: • Concise • Attractive • Positive & honest • Relevant and appropriate
Sources of applicants • Employment service job centres & agencies • Private employment agencies • Career advisory offices • Universities, colleges & schools • Professional & executive appointments • Executive search or head hunting • Advertising
Attracting suitable employees Ways of encouraging suitable external candidates to come forward and apply for vacancies in an org include: • Nominating existing employees • Casual speculative applications • Government employment services • Recruitment consultants • Advertising
Recruitment consultants • Assist clients in selecting the best staff to fill particular vacancies. Their main tasks include: • Assessing the requirements of the job & the KSA needed by the ideal candidate. • Drafting the job specification • Drafting the advertisement • Producing shortlists for the various stages of interviews • Selection of the interview team • Interview & final selection process.
Factors to consider when using RC • The cost effectiveness of the use of outside consultants • Internal problems such as lack of impartiality • Any problems that may arise with an internal staff if an outside consultant is used • The availability of in-house expertise & its likely effectiveness • The availability of a consultant with adequate experience. • The need to develop its own expertise in recruitment.
Recruitment advertising – should produce just enough suitable applicants at a reasonable cost, whilst also helping the org image so that future recruitment is made easier. • Adverts can be placed in: • The national press • The local press • Specialist journals • Radio & television • Internet P.S. You should understand the advantages & disadvantages of each
Choosing advertising media • Depends on: • Type of organisation • Type of job • Geographic coverage • Readership & circulation • Cost of medium • Frequency & duration
Reasons of ineffective recruitment • Ineffective recruitment may result from inadequate job analysis, unattractive terms or a failure in the ,media chosen to attract candidates. Reasons for ineffective selection • Ineffective selection may result from poor job analysis, bad interviewing, inadequate advertising, ignorance of the job or the lack of a validation system.
Selection methods • Several tools/techniques may be used in the selection process. These include: 1. The application form • The application form usually seeks the following type of information about the applicant: • Personal details, age; address; nationality • Education & experience history • Present employment terms & experience • Social & leisure interests • The AP provides the applicant an opportunity to qualify for the interview.
The application form is also useful for: • It eliminates totally unsuitable candidates • It acts as a useful preliminary to selection interviews • Some org’s have extended the role played by the application form by asking for much more detailed information, sometimes asking candidates to answer questions relating to their motivation towards applying.
Application form cont… • It forms the nucleus for the personal record of individual employees. • The main purpose of the AF is to obtain all the essential information about the candidate. The design of the form is crucial.
Applicant references • References are a key part of the selection process, but are used mainly to verify facts about the candidate, rather than as an aid to decision-making. • The problems with reference checking include: • They depend a lot on the referee. Some take the task seriously but many do not • Most referees are well known to the applicant & hesitate to say something critical. • References are very poor predicators of future performance, with low validity co-efficient. In seeking references employers should ask direct & meaningful questions.
3. Selection Testing: • A test is a standardized type of examination given to an individual. Selection tests include attainment tests, psychological tests, medical examinations & observation of the candidate in group situations.
Paper & pencil tests help: • Assess the ability & quality of existing employees • Assess the potential of short listed future employees • Reduce the cost of recruitment by cutting down the time spent on subjective interviewing • Eliminate or at least reduce the risk of making costly mistakes • Minimize staff turnover, which is also costly. • The main problem with any form of selection testing is to ensure that it is relevant to the type of appointment
Examples of selection tests that may be used • Intelligence tests • Aptitude tests • Competence tests • Personality tests • Medical examination • Group selection methods
Advantages of testing: • Selection tests are standardized & objective • They are accurate when well validated & assessed by qualified examiners • They are precise • Most tests can be administered in groups – less costly Limitations: • There is not always a direct relationship between a person’s ability in the test & ability in the job because of artificial test conditions • It is difficult to exclude bias from tests • Most tests suffer from coaching & practice effects.
They measure what a candidate can do, rather than will do. • They are time consuming if many attributes must be assessed • They provide more precision than is necessary. 4. Assessment centers: • Assessment centers are used to bring together groups of candidates for 1 to 3 days of intensive assessment. Traditionally the main purpose of AC has been to contribute to mgt decisions about people.
5. The selection interview • The interview is the 3rd stage in the selection process. The aim of the selection interview: 1. Find the best person for the job • Confirming, expanding or obtaining further information than already given on the application form. • Assesses candidates motivation & personality • Ensures that applicants have reasonable knowledge of the job & org which they may join and to provide then with more info if required
The selection interview – aims cont… • Evaluates the suitability of candidates for the job • Encourages the most suitable candidate to take the job • Agree to terms of employment
The selection interview – aims cont… 2. Ensure that the candidate understands what the job is & what the career prospects are 3. Make the candidate feel that they have been given fair treatment in the interview
Various types of interviews • Face-to-face – helps establish rapport & are cost-effective, however the decision relies heavily on 1 person. • Successive interviews – are more costly & can be tiring for the candidate, but it may enable a more balanced judgment to be made. • Group interviews – can identify personal qualities such as tact, dominance & persuasiveness. • Panel interviews – have the advantage of sharing judgments, but take up many people’s time & may make the candidates ill at ease.
Skills required for selection interviewing: • The main reasons for poor standard of selection interviewing are lack of training of interviewers, & poor preparation. • Skills required include: • Preparing for the interview • Analyzing the application form & other information about the candidate to decide on the main question areas
Skills required cont… • Questioning • Listening • Putting the candidate at ease & keeping the conservation along the lines of what will be useful to the candidate • Evaluating the candidate by objectively weighing & judging the information which has been obtained from the interview.
Reasons for ineffective interviewing • Interviewers have different skills & abilities & even if the questions are written on a form, the way that they are asked may influence the answers. Some limitations of interviewing include: • Subjectivity & bias are considerable dangers • There is always difficulty in putting evidence together in a coherent pattern unless the interviewer is really experienced • Because of lack of skill, specialist training, & practice on the part of interviewers, many interviews are badly structured, interviewers talk too much.
Typical faults Cloning Halo effect Failure to distinguish Prejudice Lack of preparation Shortage of time Importance of interviews: Allows individuals to met face-to-face Develops 2-way communication Allows for verification of of information Gives interviewee an opportunity to enquire about the org Can be a useful PR exercise Are recognized & accepted as valid by candidates
The importance of the selection decision • Applicants who are external to the org could leave with the clear impression that they have been unfairly treated in the interview, & this view can be expressed to others. • The selection of highly qualified & experienced persons who are initially highly motivated can easily result in disappointment & discontent. • Extra training is required • Recruitment in excess of future needs leads to other problems for the org, e.g. redundancies
Importance of selection cont… • Termination of employment for inappropriately recruited people causes problems, e.g. TU agreement, downgrading of org image. • OD can be constrained because of poor R&S.
Responsibility for staffing • Senior managers • HR department • New recruits prospective boss – line manager • Recruitment consultants or agencies
Equal Opportunity & the Management of Diversity • Diversity can be defined as recognising, appreciating, valuing & utilizing the unique talents & contributions of all individuals regardless of age, career experience, colour, communication style etc. • Equal opportunity is a generic term describing the belief that there should be an equal chance for all workers to apply and to be selected for jobs, to be trained & promoted in employment and to have that employment terminated fairly.
Reasons for adopting equal opportunities policy 2 main : • It is morally wrong to treat parts of the population as inferior or inadequate. • Organizations do not benefit from excluding any potential source of talent.
Benefits of a diverse workplace • Increased competitive advantage • Improved effectiveness & efficiency • Increased creativity & innovation • Broader range of skills • Better customer relations & service to diverse customers • Ability to recruit best talent from entire labour pool • Improved working relations in an atmosphere od inclusion
Representative workforce • The HR biz plan is a working tool designed to achieve results. Such plans are aimed at achieving a fair representation of designated groups in an org, & must contain numerical goals, activities to achieve the goals & a monitoring and evaluation procedure to follow the implementation.
Representative workforce • Numerical goals – must be realistic numbers, related to workforce analysis, & project opportunities for hiring, training & promotion, They must demonstrate bona fide effort to correct under representation or concentration of all designated groups in specific occupations or occupational categories.