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GRAMMAR

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GRAMMAR

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  1. GRAMMAR Note Cards Name _______________________ Meeting days/times__________

  2. NOUNS Unit I UNDERLINE W/ BLUE To determine whether a word can work as a noun, ask: • Is it a person, place, thing, or idea? • Does it make sense with a noun marker = article (a, an, the) in front of it? • Can it fit in the test sentence? (The) is/are good. Note: not all nouns “have” a noun marker 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  3. NOUN MARKERS also known as ARTICLES Unit I UNDERLINE W/ BLACK Draw arrow to noun The words a, an, andtheare noun markers. They announce/”mark” that a noun will follow. a pencil an international airport NOTE: Where there is a “noun marker” there is USUALLY A noun following within the next word or so. a an the 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  4. Tips for Locating Nouns Unit I • Adjectives (words that describe nouns) often separate Noun Markers and Nouns. Note how this sentence is color-coded and marked: The chocolate ice cream was delicious. • Do not mark possessives as nouns. A noun follows a possessive. Note this example: The dog’s ears are clipped. • Use the “ice cream” test: “Ice cream” is a different substance than “ice” or “cream,” and so both words are part of the noun 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  5. Unit III PREPOSITION UNDERLINE W/ GREEN Surround prepositional phrases w/ GREEN parentheses A preposition shows a relationship such as time, location, or direction between the noun and the rest of the sentence. Code = underline preposition with green. Put green parentheses at the beginning and end of the prepositional phrase. Note: MOST prepositional phrases end with a NOUN 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  6. PREPOSITIONS Unit III GREEN <<<< MEMORIZE 40 from this page & or the next for a quiz later >>>>> 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  7. MORE PREPOSITIONS Unit III GREEN <<<< MEMORIZE 40 from this page & or the previous for a quiz later 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  8. Unit III GREEN PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begin with a preposition and end with a noun or subject pronoun. The subject and verb of a sentence are never found within a prepositional phrase. 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  9. Unit III GREEN PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE EXAMPLES along with Cindy after the fireworks about the movie 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  10. Unit III “TO” the IMPOSTOR BLACK brackets [ ] • The word “to” can be a preposition OR used in an Infinitive, which is a secondary verb form. • Infinitive examples: [to eat], [to run], [to stretch], [to know] • Code with BLACK brackets [ ] with pen or pencil, not with green [ ] 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  11. Unit V SUBJECT ORANGE CIRCLE The subject of a sentence is the noun or pronoun that tells who or what performs the action of the sentence – or what the sentence is about. The subject is never found within a prepositional phrase.Lightning strikes. Color code subjects with an ORANGE circle. 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  12. Unit V Subject(s) ORANGE CIRCLE The subject of a sentence is the noun or pronoun that tells who or what performs the action – or what the sentence is about. The subject (or verb) is NEVER found within a prepositional phrase. subject verb 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  13. Unit V ACTION VERB UNDERLINE W/ RED An action verb expresses action done or being done by the subject of the sentence. Lightning strikes. 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  14. Unit V Action Verbs UNDERLINE W/ RED If you are unsure whether a sentence contains an action verb or not, look at every word in the sentence and ask yourself, “Can a person or thing DO this?” 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  15. Unit V SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence has a subject and a verb and forms a complete thought. Every sentence has an “acting orange” (subject) and “doing red” (verb). Birds fly. S V S= subject V= verb 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  16. Unit V INDEPENDENT CLAUSE also called a SIMPLE SENTENCE An independent clause is a group of related words with a subject and a verb that can stand on its own as a simple sentence. Rain flooded the streets. S V S= subject V= verb 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  17. Unit V ORDER OF OPERATIONS #1 • Nouns and subject pronouns(note: You may continue to label noun markers in black if you wish.) • Prepositional phrases • Subjects Leave room for #4 to be added later in this unit. Underline w/ BLUE Surround prepositional phrases w/ GREEN parentheses Underline preposition w/ green Circle w/ ORANGE 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  18. Unit V SUBJECT PRONOUN UNDERLINE W/ BLUE A subject pronoun is a word that replaces a subjectnoun. The subjectpronountells who or what performs the action of the sentence. He runs. Memorize for a quiz later S V S= subject V= verb THE 7 PERSONAL PRONOUNS: Iyouhesheitwethey 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  19. Unit V COMPOUND SUBJECT Orange Circle A compound subjectoccurs when two or more subjectsare joined together to tell who or what performs the action of the sentence. Women and children went first. S= subject V= verb S S V 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  20. Unit V ORDER OF OPERATIONS #1 (addition of #4) • Nouns and subject pronouns blue(note: You may continue to label noun markers in black if you wish.) • Prepositional phrases green • Subjects orange • Verbs red • Action • Linking • Helping 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  21. Unit V LINKING VERB red A linkingverbis a verb that expresses no action. Instead, it expresses a state of being or a condition of the subject. I am a college graduate. The truth remains to be seen. The bread tastes fresh. LV = Linking Verb S LV S LV S LV 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  22. Unit V Common Linking Verbs 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  23. Unit V MOST COMMON LINKING VERBS Forms of “to be”amwas are were is MEMORIZE for a quiz later >>>> 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  24. Unit V OTHER LINKING VERBS red Relate to the senses: feel look sound taste smell Other: become grow remain appear seem 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  25. Unit V COMPOUNDVERB red A compoundverbconsists of two or more verbs expressing the actions or state of being of the subject. The massive bull snorted and pawed the ground. S V V 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  26. Unit V HELPING VERB red Helping verbs are small words that help action verbs form verb phrases. She has been walking today. Note: “has + been” are helping verbs for the action verb “walking”. HV = Helping Verb S HV HV V 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  27. MNEMONIC for memorizing the 23 most commonHELPINGVERBS Unit V <<<<MEMORIZE FOR A QUIZ LATER Chad B. Swim 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  28. Unit V Common Helping Verbs red 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  29. Unit VII COMPOUND SENTENCES <<<<MEMORIZE FOR A QUIZ LATER A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses (complete sentences) properly joined together. S+ V+(connector Method #1 or #2) S+ V+ S+ = one or more subjects V+= one or more verbs 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  30. Unit VII COMPOUND SENTENCE CONNECTOR METHOD #1 Join independent clauses by a comma and one of seven coordinating conjunctions. I could get the groceries ,or you could stop on your way home. S H V V S H V V 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  31. Unit VII COORDINATING CONJUNCTION A coordinating conjunction joins two or more items. In compound sentences, it joins two independent clauses (complete sentences).The seven coordinating conjunctions FANBOYS = For And Nor But Or Yet So MEMORIZE for a quiz later >>>> 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  32. Unit VII COMPOUND SENTENCE CONNECTOR METHOD #2 Join an independent clauses by a semicolonalone. A semicolon is a punctuation mark that can replace a period between two independent clauses that are closely related. Heavy ice pulled down power lines; hundreds of homes lost electricity. S V S V 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  33. Unit IX COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has one independent (main) clause and at least one dependent (subordinate) clause. If I leave now, I will arrive at the marina by noon. Color code CX sentences by underlining the subordinate conjunction w/ BROWN and circling the entire dependent clause w/ BROWN comma S HV V S V This is the DEPENDENT CLAUSE 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  34. Unit IX DEPENDENT CLAUSE circle with BROWN A dependent clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. Dependent clauses begin with either a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun. After I received the good news , comma S V 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  35. Unit IX SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION underline BROWN A subordinate conjunctionis a word that begins a dependent clause and shows a relationship between the dependent clause and the independent (main) clause. 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  36. COMMON SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS underline BROWN Unit IX <<<<MEMORIZE for a quiz later 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  37. Unit IX The LAST ORDER OF OPERATION #2 • Prepositional phrases GREEN • Underline subordinate conjunctions or relative pronouns, if any brown • Subjects - there will be at least two subjects in a complex sentence orange • Verbs RED • Action • Linking • Helping • Circle dependent clause, if any brown 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013

  38. 2nd Edition ED 052 BJM Jan 2013