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Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety

Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety

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Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety

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  1. Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety Competencies 9.00-10.00

  2. What is safety? • Safety is defined as freedom from danger, risk, or injury. • This is NOT possible to achieve. So, we have to ensure that our environment is as safe as possible by: • Keeping a clean area • Using safety equipment • Following all instructions

  3. Safety Equipment

  4. Safety Equipment • The following safety equipment is most often used in laboratory settings: • Eye protection • Lab coats • Gloves • Fire protection equipment • Materials storage cabinets • Eye wash/shower • Fume hood

  5. Eye Protection • Safety glasses, safety goggles, or face shield • Used to protect eyes and face from spills or splashes (one of the most common accidents in labs)

  6. Eye Protection • Face shields offer the most protection • Scratches can be avoided by never laying the protection face down

  7. Lab Coats • Protect body and clothes from spills • Contribute to a sterile environment

  8. Gloves • Usually surgical style, thin plastic • Offer some protection to skin • Used to achieve aseptic conditions

  9. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire blanket • Fire extinguisher • Fire alarm • Should be easily accessible and clearly marked • In order to extinguish a fire, the fuel must be known

  10. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire extinguishers should be rated for chemical and/or liquid fires • Classes of fire extinguishers • Class A-paper/wood • Class B-liquids • Class C-electrical • Class D-combustible metals

  11. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire extinguisher should be aimed at the base of the flames and used until flames are completely extinguished.

  12. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire blankets are most effective for smoldering small flames on an individual’s clothing or person.

  13. Materials Storage Cabinets • Flammables • Most common type of cabinet • Isolates flammable chemicals for safety • Should contain chemicals ONLY • Fire resistant, not fire proof

  14. Materials Storage Cabinets • Acids • Isolate chemicals with specialized spill containers

  15. Eye Wash/Shower • Should be checked often • Should only be used in case of emergency • After chemical exposure, eyes should be rinsed for more than a minute to ensure that damage is limited as much as possible.

  16. Fume Hood • Removes noxious fumes produced by chemical solutions from the laboratory • Very expensive

  17. Safety Principles

  18. General Guidelines • Keep the workspace clean and clear of any obstructions and excess equipment, people, and/or supplies. • Keep supplies and equipment in an easily accessible location.

  19. Chemical Safety • Make certain that chemicals are clearly labeled with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) well marked and easily accessible.

  20. Chemical Spills and Exposure • Spills should be quickly contained and the area secured • Special media can be used to absorb harmful chemicals

  21. Chemical Spills and Exposure • Any exposed skin should be immediately rinsed or neutralized (in the case of acid or base) • particularly with eye exposure MSDS should be consulted for treatment • A mild acid can sometimes be used to neutralize areas exposed to a strong base (works both ways)

  22. Chemical Spills and Exposure • Chemicals consumed orally should be treated using the chemical’s MSDS sheet.

  23. MSDS Sheets • MSDS sheets contain important information on chemicals including: • Chemical properties • Storage • Disposal procedures • Treatment for exposure

  24. MSDS Sheets • Using the worksheet provided research information on the Material Safety Data Sheets for three chemicals.

  25. Handling Chemicals • Only use chemicals that are properly labeled, with current MSDS sheets • Use only approved containers for mixing and storing chemical solutions • Use a graduated cylinder or digital scale to ensure that the proper amount of chemicals are added to the solution

  26. Handling Chemicals • When pouring liquid chemicals, place containers in contact whenever possible to prevent spills. • Do not leave chemicals unattended outside of storage areas. • When creating acid solutions, acids should always be poured slowly into water, to prevent splashing

  27. Handling Chemicals • Federal law requires chemicals to be diluted before disposal being careful not to mix chemicals that react violently. • Make certain that all necessary permits are obtained from government regulatory agencies for the use of restricted chemicals and biologicals.

  28. Creating and Maintaining a Sterile Environment

  29. Sterilization Equipment • An autoclave is the best method for sterilization of small lab equipment, water/solutions, glassware, and lab materials. • Even paper towels and cotton swabs can be sterilized. • Autoclaves will KILL all live material

  30. Sterilization Equipment • Flow hoods and surfaces can be cleaned/disinfected with a bleach based solution

  31. Sterilization Equipment • Forceps and other equipment should never be placed in contact with surfaces • Should be kept in a 70% ethanol (alcohol) solution, and flamed over an alcohol lamp before contacting sterile material.

  32. Creating a Sterile Environment • Tissue culture and other aseptic lab techniques work best in a clean room or under a Laminar Flow Hood

  33. Creating a Sterile Environment • Laminar flow hoods use a special filter (hepa filter) to clean air that needs changed after a given number of hours. • Sterile boxes can be created with plexiglass or plastic sheeting for a more affordable but less reliable alternative.

  34. Creating a Sterile Environment • Once the area is sterilized the movement of equipment and materials into and out of the work area should be minimized.

  35. Maintaining Sterile Conditions • A face shield or front cover should be used to prevent contamination from mouth and nose (breathing).

  36. Maintaining Sterile Conditions • Hands and arms • Should be carefully washed with soap and water • An anti-bacterial soap should be used on hands over wrists, immediately before placement in sterile surgical gloves. • Hands should be kept inside the air curtain of the flow hood at all times, away from the edge or entrance to avoid accidental contamination.

  37. Maintaining Sterile Conditions • Sleeves should be away from hands and shedding materials should be avoided • A lab coat is ideal.

  38. Tips for Laboratory Projects

  39. MSDS Sheets • MSDS Sheets provide all the information necessary for storage, handling, and disposal of a chemical or solution • Includes the chemical formula, reactivity data, storage temperatures, exposure/ inhalation/ingestion treatments, disposal methods, dangers with use, etc. • Should be easily accessible in the lab

  40. Mixing Chemicals • Make certain to clearly label the COMPOSITION AND STRENGTH of all solutions • Under concentrated solutions can be ineffective • Over concentrated solutions can be extremely dangerous

  41. Mixing Chemicals • Always pour concentrated acids INTO cool water (NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND) • Pour with beakers or bottles in contact when possible, running the liquid down the side of the glass to avoid splashing or flash boiling • KNOW WHAT YOU ARE COMBINING OR CREATING!!!

  42. Use of Biological Materials • Biological materials should be carefully stored and utilized with careful attention to temperature. • Bacteria cultures should NEVER be incubated at temperatures ABOVE 30 degrees C, as higher temps encourage the growth of organisms harmful to humans.

  43. Use of Biological Materials • Biological materials should be clearly labeled and stored in clearly marked and isolated areas. BACTERIA

  44. Use of Biological Materials • Any harmful biological materials should be destroyed prior to disposal • Autoclaves can be used to destroy most bacteria cultures and plant or animal cells. • Agricultural labs often use special biological materials disposal containers to store materials until pickup for destruction by an external company.

  45. Laboratory Equipment and Its Uses

  46. Laboratory Equipment • There are several different types of equipment that are essential to labs: • Autoclave • Centrifuge • Micropipette • Compound Light Microscope • Incubator • Water Bath • Hot Plate • Shaker • Graduated Cylinder

  47. Autoclave • A chamber that uses high levels of heat and pressure to sterilize instruments and materials, or destroy harmful organisms/pathogens.

  48. Autoclave Safety • Check all gauges and valves before using an autoclave. • Never leave equipment unattended while running, as high temperatures and pressure can be dangerous.

  49. Centrifuge • An instrument used to isolate solids (in the form of a small pellet) from a solution. • Utilizes very small tubes to hold the solution.

  50. Using a Centrifuge • Proper use of a centrifuge requires that the instrument be balanced. • This can be accomplished by placing an equal number of tubes directly across from each other in the instrument.