agricultural lab equipment and safety n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety

Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety

182 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Agricultural Lab Equipment and Safety Competencies 9.00-10.00

  2. What is safety? • Safety is defined as freedom from danger, risk, or injury. • This is NOT possible to achieve. So, we have to ensure that our environment is as safe as possible by: • Keeping a clean area • Using safety equipment • Following all instructions

  3. Safety Equipment

  4. Safety Equipment • The following safety equipment is most often used in laboratory settings: • Eye protection • Lab coats • Gloves • Fire protection equipment • Materials storage cabinets • Eye wash/shower • Fume hood

  5. Eye Protection • Safety glasses, safety goggles, or face shield • Used to protect eyes and face from spills or splashes (one of the most common accidents in labs)

  6. Eye Protection • Face shields offer the most protection • Scratches can be avoided by never laying the protection face down

  7. Lab Coats • Protect body and clothes from spills • Contribute to a sterile environment

  8. Gloves • Usually surgical style, thin plastic • Offer some protection to skin • Used to achieve aseptic conditions

  9. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire blanket • Fire extinguisher • Fire alarm • Should be easily accessible and clearly marked • In order to extinguish a fire, the fuel must be known

  10. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire extinguishers should be rated for chemical and/or liquid fires • Classes of fire extinguishers • Class A-paper/wood • Class B-liquids • Class C-electrical • Class D-combustible metals

  11. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire extinguisher should be aimed at the base of the flames and used until flames are completely extinguished.

  12. Fire Protection Equipment • Fire blankets are most effective for smoldering small flames on an individual’s clothing or person.

  13. Materials Storage Cabinets • Flammables • Most common type of cabinet • Isolates flammable chemicals for safety • Should contain chemicals ONLY • Fire resistant, not fire proof

  14. Materials Storage Cabinets • Acids • Isolate chemicals with specialized spill containers

  15. Eye Wash/Shower • Should be checked often • Should only be used in case of emergency • After chemical exposure, eyes should be rinsed for more than a minute to ensure that damage is limited as much as possible.

  16. Fume Hood • Removes noxious fumes produced by chemical solutions from the laboratory • Very expensive

  17. Safety Principles

  18. General Guidelines • Keep the workspace clean and clear of any obstructions and excess equipment, people, and/or supplies. • Keep supplies and equipment in an easily accessible location.

  19. Chemical Safety • Make certain that chemicals are clearly labeled with Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) well marked and easily accessible.

  20. Chemical Spills and Exposure • Spills should be quickly contained and the area secured • Special media can be used to absorb harmful chemicals

  21. Chemical Spills and Exposure • Any exposed skin should be immediately rinsed or neutralized (in the case of acid or base) • particularly with eye exposure MSDS should be consulted for treatment • A mild acid can sometimes be used to neutralize areas exposed to a strong base (works both ways)

  22. Chemical Spills and Exposure • Chemicals consumed orally should be treated using the chemical’s MSDS sheet.

  23. MSDS Sheets • MSDS sheets contain important information on chemicals including: • Chemical properties • Storage • Disposal procedures • Treatment for exposure

  24. MSDS Sheets • Using the worksheet provided research information on the Material Safety Data Sheets for three chemicals.

  25. Handling Chemicals • Only use chemicals that are properly labeled, with current MSDS sheets • Use only approved containers for mixing and storing chemical solutions • Use a graduated cylinder or digital scale to ensure that the proper amount of chemicals are added to the solution

  26. Handling Chemicals • When pouring liquid chemicals, place containers in contact whenever possible to prevent spills. • Do not leave chemicals unattended outside of storage areas. • When creating acid solutions, acids should always be poured slowly into water, to prevent splashing

  27. Handling Chemicals • Federal law requires chemicals to be diluted before disposal being careful not to mix chemicals that react violently. • Make certain that all necessary permits are obtained from government regulatory agencies for the use of restricted chemicals and biologicals.

  28. Creating and Maintaining a Sterile Environment

  29. Sterilization Equipment • An autoclave is the best method for sterilization of small lab equipment, water/solutions, glassware, and lab materials. • Even paper towels and cotton swabs can be sterilized. • Autoclaves will KILL all live material

  30. Sterilization Equipment • Flow hoods and surfaces can be cleaned/disinfected with a bleach based solution

  31. Sterilization Equipment • Forceps and other equipment should never be placed in contact with surfaces • Should be kept in a 70% ethanol (alcohol) solution, and flamed over an alcohol lamp before contacting sterile material.

  32. Creating a Sterile Environment • Tissue culture and other aseptic lab techniques work best in a clean room or under a Laminar Flow Hood

  33. Creating a Sterile Environment • Laminar flow hoods use a special filter (hepa filter) to clean air that needs changed after a given number of hours. • Sterile boxes can be created with plexiglass or plastic sheeting for a more affordable but less reliable alternative.

  34. Creating a Sterile Environment • Once the area is sterilized the movement of equipment and materials into and out of the work area should be minimized.

  35. Maintaining Sterile Conditions • A face shield or front cover should be used to prevent contamination from mouth and nose (breathing).

  36. Maintaining Sterile Conditions • Hands and arms • Should be carefully washed with soap and water • An anti-bacterial soap should be used on hands over wrists, immediately before placement in sterile surgical gloves. • Hands should be kept inside the air curtain of the flow hood at all times, away from the edge or entrance to avoid accidental contamination.

  37. Maintaining Sterile Conditions • Sleeves should be away from hands and shedding materials should be avoided • A lab coat is ideal.

  38. Tips for Laboratory Projects

  39. MSDS Sheets • MSDS Sheets provide all the information necessary for storage, handling, and disposal of a chemical or solution • Includes the chemical formula, reactivity data, storage temperatures, exposure/ inhalation/ingestion treatments, disposal methods, dangers with use, etc. • Should be easily accessible in the lab

  40. Mixing Chemicals • Make certain to clearly label the COMPOSITION AND STRENGTH of all solutions • Under concentrated solutions can be ineffective • Over concentrated solutions can be extremely dangerous

  41. Mixing Chemicals • Always pour concentrated acids INTO cool water (NOT THE OTHER WAY AROUND) • Pour with beakers or bottles in contact when possible, running the liquid down the side of the glass to avoid splashing or flash boiling • KNOW WHAT YOU ARE COMBINING OR CREATING!!!

  42. Use of Biological Materials • Biological materials should be carefully stored and utilized with careful attention to temperature. • Bacteria cultures should NEVER be incubated at temperatures ABOVE 30 degrees C, as higher temps encourage the growth of organisms harmful to humans.

  43. Use of Biological Materials • Biological materials should be clearly labeled and stored in clearly marked and isolated areas. BACTERIA

  44. Use of Biological Materials • Any harmful biological materials should be destroyed prior to disposal • Autoclaves can be used to destroy most bacteria cultures and plant or animal cells. • Agricultural labs often use special biological materials disposal containers to store materials until pickup for destruction by an external company.

  45. Laboratory Equipment and Its Uses

  46. Laboratory Equipment • There are several different types of equipment that are essential to labs: • Autoclave • Centrifuge • Micropipette • Compound Light Microscope • Incubator • Water Bath • Hot Plate • Shaker • Graduated Cylinder

  47. Autoclave • A chamber that uses high levels of heat and pressure to sterilize instruments and materials, or destroy harmful organisms/pathogens.

  48. Autoclave Safety • Check all gauges and valves before using an autoclave. • Never leave equipment unattended while running, as high temperatures and pressure can be dangerous.

  49. Centrifuge • An instrument used to isolate solids (in the form of a small pellet) from a solution. • Utilizes very small tubes to hold the solution.

  50. Using a Centrifuge • Proper use of a centrifuge requires that the instrument be balanced. • This can be accomplished by placing an equal number of tubes directly across from each other in the instrument.