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The Cold War: 1945-1990

The Cold War: 1945-1990

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The Cold War: 1945-1990

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  1. The Cold War:1945-1990

  2. Life After WW2 • WW2 ends Aug. 14, 1945 after Japan surrenders • Over 60 million casualties • 20 million soldiers • Over 40 million civilians • Europe in ruins after war • U.S. & Soviets emerge as superpowers

  3. Cold War Background • Germany split into East & West • Berlin, Germany split into 4 zones: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union & U.S. • Big 3 meet/agree at Yalta Conference • Meeting to discuss how to keep peace

  4. Germany after WW2

  5. United Nations • Big 3 agree peace keeping group needed • United Nations: formed in 1945 to replace League of Nations • Goal: prevent future war & advocate world peace • Every member nation was given a seat

  6. Fear of Communism • U.S. wanted to spread democracy, S.U. wanted to spread communism • Countries U.S. freed could choose own government • Countries Soviet Union freed forced to be under communist control • S.U. had satellite countries watched by secret police • Citizens not allowed to speak against government or leave country

  7. What is Communism? Communism is a type of government and philosophy. Its goal is to form a society where everything is shared equally. All people are treated equally and there is little private ownership. In a communist government, the government owns and controls most everything including property, means of production, education, transportation, and agriculture Marx described ten important aspects of a communist government: No private property A single central bank High income tax that would rise significantly as you made more All property rights would be confiscated No inheritance rights The government would own and control all communication and transportation The government would own and control all education The government would own and control factories and agriculture Farming and regional planning would be run by the government The government would tightly control labor

  8. Cold War Begins • S.U. building an “Iron Curtain” • Iron curtain: imaginary wall or line that separated Soviet nations from the rest of Europe • S.U. determined to surround itself with counties that were not a threat • S.U. did not trust U.S. as U.S. had atomic bomb & less damage from WW2

  9. Review… • 1) Which 2 countries emerges as superpowers following WW2? • 2) What country was split into 2 after WW2? • 3) What was formed in 1945 to replace the League of Nations? • 4) What was its purpose? • 5) What type of government was the U.S. hoping to spread? The Soviets? • 6) It was said that the Soviets were building what? • 7) Why did the Soviets not trust the U.S. after WW2?

  10. Cold War Begins • Cold War was an indirect war for global power & domination • U.S. used policy of Containment to prevent Soviet Union influence around the world • Western Europe: U.S. & its allies • Eastern Europe: Soviet Union & its satellites

  11. Truman Doctrine • U.S. vowed to provide aid to help foreign countries fight off communism • Began after Greece & Turkey threatened by communism • Part of containment policy to fight off Soviet aggression

  12. Marshall Plan • Nations of Europe in ruin after WW2 • U.S. agreed to help fund European nations to help rebuild economy • Soviet Union disallowed Eastern Europe from receiving aid

  13. Marshall Plan Expenditures

  14. Map of Cold War

  15. NATO • NATO: U.S. joined 9 Western European nations in 1949 • North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Members promised to defend each other if attacked

  16. Warsaw Pact • Military pact created in 1955 • Created in response to NATO by Soviets for safety • Soviets & its Eastern Europe countries agree to defend each other if attacked • Disbanded in 1991

  17. NATO-Warsaw Pact Map

  18. Review… • 1) What was the name of the indirect war for global domination? • 2) What was the name of the imaginary wall the Soviets were building to separate them from the rest of Europe? • 3) The S.U. & its satellites was what part of Europe? • 4) The U.S. & its allies was what part of Europe? • 5) The U.S. adopted a policy of what to prevent Soviet influence around the world? • 6) The U.S. vowed to provide aid to foreign countries threatened by communism (Greece and Turkey) This was called what? • 7) The U.S. helping European countries rebuild their economy after WW2 was called what? • 8) What was the name of the defense pact the U.S. & its allies signed? • 9) What was the name of the defense pact the S.U. &its satellites signed?

  19. Berlin Airlift • First major crisis of Cold War • France, Great Britain & U.S. decided to combine their German occupation zones to unite West Germany • Berlin was in S.U. zone; but was divided east & west • Soviet Union feared Allies were gaining upper hand & set up a blockade in Berlin

  20. Berlin Airlift • U.S. & British began airlifting supplies to West Berlin in response to Soviet blockade • U.S. delivered over 2.3 million tons of food, fuel & machinery to West Germany • Soviet lifts blockade & Germany split into 2 countries • East Germany: communist under S.U. control • West Germany: democracy under U.S. control

  21. Map of East & West Germany

  22. McCarthyism • Fear of communism increased due to: • China taken over by communism • Korean War • Successful creation & testing of atomic bomb by Soviets • Known as “Red Scare”

  23. McCarthyism • McCarthyism: accusing people of being communists • 1950s fear that communist spies were working in the U.S. • Named after U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy • Claimed to have a “list” of over 200 communists working for the government

  24. McCarthyism • Americans believed that McCarthy was trying to save U.S. from communist takeover • Others saw McCarthy as a danger to U.S. • Never had any proof of his accusations • After falsely accusing U.S. Army of having communists, he was censored by the Senate

  25. Fear of Communism

  26. Communism in Asia • Japan controlled Korea prior to WW2 • After WW2, Korea divided into communist North & democratic South • Soviets occupied North, U.S. occupied South

  27. Korean War • Civil War began in China in 1946 • Communist Party vs. American supported Nationalists Party • After Chinese Civil War, China fell to communism in 1949 • Domino theory: if one country in Asia fell to communism, others would

  28. Korean War • U.S. & Soviet could not agree on plan to unite Korea • In 1950 North’s Soviet trained army invades South • Truman condemned North’s attack & sent UN forces to fight • 90% of UN troops were American

  29. Korean War • North receives aid from communist China • MacArthur calls for invasion of China • Neither side able to make progress as cease-fire called for in 1953 • Korea still remained divided along 38th parallel

  30. First Stages of War • North Invades SouthNorth Advances aid from China

  31. Final Stages of War • U.S. AdvancesCease-fire Called

  32. Korean War Map

  33. Review… • 1) If one country in Asia fell to communism, others would as well. What was this theory called? • 2) The Soviets controlled which part of Korea? • 3) Which part of Korea did the U.S. control? • 4) The Korean war began after which side invaded which? • 5) Gen. MacArthur was fired after he called for the invasion of which country? • 6) The Korean War ended after what was called for? • 7) Where does Korea remain divided at?

  34. Cuban Missile Crisis • Cuba fell to communism in 1959 after Cuban Revolution • Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro • Communist overthrew dictatorship government • U.S. saw this as a threat as Cuba only 90 miles from Florida

  35. Cuban Missile Crisis • Cuba refused U.S. intervention after falling to communism in 1959 • U.S. imposed an embargo on Cuba • Cuba began receiving aid from Soviets • Cuban exiles began fleeing to U.S. to get away from harsh government

  36. Bay of Pigs Invasion • JFK trained Cuban exiles for invasion of Cuba • Exiles were to be supported by local population of Cuba • Support never came & exiles captured by Cuba • Huge mistake & defeat for U.S. • U.S. forced to pay ransom for release of soldiers

  37. Cuban Missile Crisis • Cuba feared another U.S. invasion & turned to Soviets for help • Soviets began installing nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962 • Missiles could reach all the way to CA

  38. Cuban Missile Crisis • JFK risked nuclear war by attacking Soviets but could not ignore missiles • U.S. installed blockade of Cuba • Soviets agreed to remove missiles if U.S. would not invade Cuba • Crisis was closest U.S. & Soviets came to nuclear war

  39. Vietnam War • Vietnam won its independence from France in 1954 • Divided into communist North & U.S. supported South • Communist group in South formed called Viet Cong

  40. Vietnam War • North supplied weapons to Viet Cong • Goal was to re-unite Vietnam under communist rule • After U.S. ship bombed in Vietnam waters, Gulf of Tonkin Resolution passed • Allowed president to use military force in Vietnam • U.S. troops in Vietnam escalated in attempt to contain communism

  41. Vietnam War • U.S. Disadvantages: • 1) Unable to decipher enemy from civilian • 2) Inexperienced soldiers • 3) Jungle terrain & weather • 4) Guerilla Warfare • Ex: Grenades hidden in bushes, jungle filled with landmines & booby traps, underground tunnels used for fighting

  42. Vietnam War • Tet Offensive: surprise attack on U.S. military bases in S. Vietnam • Viet Cong destroyed military bases & villages • Surprise attack proved end of war nowhere near • Anti-war sentiment escalated in U.S.

  43. Vietnam War • U.S. homefront disagreed with war • Felt we should not be fighting Vietnam’s civil war • Protests held on college campuses • Men burned draft card &/or fled to Canada • Poor men drafted as they could not afford to pay college & defer

  44. Vietnam War • Neither side able to make progress as cease-fire called in 1973 • Last of U.S. troops withdrew by March • In 1975 North launched surprise attack on South • South defeated & Vietnam united as communist

  45. Wading through Jungle Waters

  46. Clearing the Jungle