Commas, Commas, and More Commas! 7 Easy Rules to Improve Your Grammar Life
Rule #1 (Review): Items in a Series • A series consists of three or more items of the same kind written one after the other in a sentence. • Always place the comma before the conjunction. (common conjunctions: and, but, or) • Remember you must have THREE items to need commas! I packed these items for my ski trip: a scarf, boots, and gloves.
Rule #2: Compound Sentences • This is one of those ways to fix a run-on we’ve talked about REPEATEDLY. • It isn’t enough to fix a problem, but with the help of a conjunction, relief is on the way! • But REMEMBER: Each sentence must have a subject and a verb to combine to make a compound sentence.
Rule #3: Adjectives of Equal Weight • Look for two adjectives, and then try to reverse them. If they can be reversed then they need a comma. • The canoe toppled into the swift, harsh river.
Rule #4: Introductory Elements • An introductory element is a phrase or clause at the beginning of a sentence. • Place a comma between the phrase or clause and the main sentence. Examples (Write One) • Sprinting toward third base, the runner suddenly realized he was going to be tagged out. • Before the concert, the stage lights were focused and cleaned.
Rule #5: Interrupters • Place commas around words, phrases, or clauses that interrupt the flow of a sentence. Choose one example to write: • He told me, however, that he liked my style. • My son, on the other hand, is more energetic than my daughter.
Rule #6: Appositives • Renames a noun. • It also helps describe a noun by giving you more information • Example: Our town library, the oldest building in the county, is being remodeled. • Set off by commas • Another Example: • The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table.
Rule #7: Noun of Direct Address • When you use someone’s name or title at the beginning of a sentence where you are talking to them, it’s called “direct address.” • Use a comma to separate the name from the sentence. • Examples: • Ms. Griner, you are the most fantastic teacher in the entire world. • Students, please stop talking.
Which Rule Goes With Which Sentence? 1. Ms. Smith, our English teacher, enjoys reading poetry. 2. Lacey is smiling, but she hates being here. 3. As the song ended, he walked away. 4. The joy of giving, however, is what Christmas is about. 5. The light, wet snow covered the valley. 6. Adam, could you open the window? 7. Claire baked pies, cookies, and two loaves of bread. a. items in a series b. interrupter c. introductory word(s) d. appositive e. noun of direct address f. compound sentence g. adjectives of equal weight.
How Many Did You Get?? 1. d 2. f 3. c 4. b 5. g 6. e 7. a