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Cross-Border Litigation and Dispute Resolution

Cross-Border Litigation and Dispute Resolution

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Cross-Border Litigation and Dispute Resolution

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  1. Cross-Border Litigationand Dispute Resolution International Commercial Arbitration NYSBA International Law Boot Camp ABA Spring Meeting April 13, 2010 Thomas N. Pieper

  2. International Dispute Resolution • Litigation • Arbitration • Mediation and other forms of ADR • Government Investigations

  3. International Dispute Resolution • “International” means… • different / additional rules • translation issues • more la(w)yers of complexity • Plan ahead • Advise client • Notify court (FRCP 44.1, CPLR 4511) • Cooperate with adversary • Local counsel •  NYSBA International, ABA, etc.

  4. The Complexity of a Structure

  5. Is A Matter Of Perspective

  6. Arbitration vs. Litigation • Time • Cost • Flexibility for Parties to select • Decision Makers • Procedure (incl. evidence and briefing) • Enforceability • Confidentiality

  7. New York Convention • 1958 Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards • Parties: 144 (April 12, 2010) • Chapter 2 of the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) • Federal policy pro arbitration

  8. New York ConventionArbitration Agreements • Recognize Arbitration Agreement • Compel Arbitration

  9. New York ConventionArbitral Awards • Recognize • Enforce

  10. Importance of Arbitration Clause • Arbitration = Creature of Contract • no agreement to arbitrate, no arbitration • Default mechanisms

  11. European RegulationsOverview • Regulation 44/2001 (Civil/Commercial matters - "Brussels I") • Council Regulation 1347/2000 (Family matters - "Brussels II") • Council Regulation 1346/2000 (Insolvency Proceedings) • Council Regulation 1348/2000 (Service of documents)

  12. European RegulationsReg. 44/2001 - Brussels I • Origin: 1968 Brussels Convention • Jurisdiction • Domicile (Art. 2 (1)) • Exceptions • Competent court must hear the case; no forum non conveniens • Lis pendens provision; no anti-suit injunctions • Recognition and Enforcement

  13. Hague Choice ofCourt Convention • Status • Mexico acceded in ‘07 • US and EC signed in ‘09 • One more ratification needed • Basic Rules • Chosen court must hear the case • No jurisdiction for any court not chosen • Judgment rendered by chosen court recognized and enforced by courts in any other Contracting State

  14. Practical Considerations forDrafting an Arbitration Clause

  15. General Considerations • Arbitrate or not? • Draft clear arbitration clause • Tailor your arbitration clause

  16. Approach: An Integrated Process • Integrate drafting of arbitration clause into drafting of contract • Reach out to IDR lawyer early • Provide IDR lawyer with entire contract and other relevant information • Don’t simply copy & paste arbitration clause from another contract

  17. Contents of Arbitration Clause • Basic Requirements • Additional Elements • Procedural Aspects • Special Issues

  18. I. Basic Requirements A. Final and binding agreement to arbitrate B. Definition of scope of arbitrability C. Set of rules / administering institution (if any) D. Appointing authority (if any) E. Agreement that judgment may be enteredon award (applies only to U.S. domestic arbitration)

  19. I. Basic Requirements • A. Final and binding agreement to arbitrate • arbitration as method of dispute resolution • Bad example: “In case of dispute, the parties undertake to submit to arbitration, but in case of litigation the Tribunal de la Seine shall have exclusive jurisdiction.” • agreement binding and final • Bad example: “Any dispute of whatever nature arising out of or in any way relating to the Agreement or to its construction or fulfillment may be referred to arbitration.”

  20. I. Basic Requirements A. Final and binding agreement to arbitrate B. Definition of scope of arbitrability C. Set of rules / administering institution (if any) D. Appointing authority (if any) E. Agreement that judgment may be enteredon award (applies only to domestic arbitration)

  21. I. Basic Requirements • B. Definition of scope of arbitrability • Define clearly what should be covered • breach of contract • other claims arising out of / related to contract • Be careful with carve-outs • Limit arbitrators’ authority where appropriate • Example: punitive damages, equitable relief, sanctions

  22. I. Basic Requirements A. Final and binding agreement to arbitrate B. Definition of scope of arbitrability C. Set of rules / administering institution (if any) D. Appointing authority (if any) E. Agreement that judgment may be enteredon award (applies only to domestic arbitration)

  23. I. Basic Requirements • C. Set of rules / administering institution (if any) • Ad hoc or Administered Arbitration? • Example: reinsurance arbitration • If administered: Which institution? • ICC v. AAA/ICDR v. LCIA • comparison of rules • comparison of fee structure • Regional arbitration centers, industry organizations • Which rules? • Ad hoc • UNCITRAL • Subset of Institutional Rules

  24. I. Basic Requirements A. Final and binding agreement to arbitrate B. Definition of scope of arbitrability C. Set of rules / administering institution (if any) D. Appointing authority (if any) E. Agreement that judgment may be enteredon award (applies only to domestic arbitration)

  25. Sample Clauses • ICC: “All disputes arising out of or in connection with the present contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules.” • ICDR: “Any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to this contract, or the breach thereof, shall be determined by arbitration administered by the International Centre for Dispute Resolution in accordance with its International Arbitration Rules.” • UNCITRAL: “Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or relating to this contract, or the breach, termination or invalidity thereof, shall be settled by arbitration in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules as at present in force.”

  26. II. Additional Elements • A. Place of arbitration • B. Applicable law • - Substantive • - Procedural • C. Language of the arbitration • D. Number of arbitrators • E. Qualifications of arbitrators • F. Method of arbitrator selection • G. Confidentiality • H. Interim relief

  27. Place of Arbitration

  28. Additional ElementsA. Place of Arbitration • NY Convention applies? • Need / availability of local counsel? • Willingness of arbitrators, witnesses, and counsel to travel there? • Logistical support available (conference rooms, stenographers, etc.)? • Local judiciary supportive of arbitration (motions to compel; anti-suit injunctions) –or not (motions to vacate award)?

  29. Additional ElementsB. Applicable Law • Substantive Law • Think of international conventions (e.g., CISG) • Think of conflicts of laws • Check contract for choice of law clause • Procedural Law • Carefully consider arbitration rules / local laws • Seat of arbitration may impact procedure

  30. Language of the Arbitration

  31. Additional ElementsC. Language of the Arbitration • Pick one language, not two or more • Language limits pool of arbitrators and counsel • Allow submission of documents / witness statements in original language where appropriate • Translations are costly and slow down the process • Witnesses should testify in their native language • Default rule: language follows document containing arbitration clause • Careful with Term Sheets, MoUs, etc. that may become the final document

  32. Additional ElementsD. Number of Arbitrators • Pick one or three • Possibly contingent on size of matter • Example: R-1 (b) AAA Commercial Rules provides for Expedited Procedures before sole arbitrator “in any case in which no disclosed claim or counterclaim exceeds $75,000” – but parties may agree to use these procedures in larger cases

  33. Additional ElementsE. Qualifications of Arbitrators • Use objective criteria (if any) • Examples: 10 years admitted as lawyer in NY; retired federal judge; former officer of Lloyd’s; MBA, CPA, from U.S. accredited school, etc. • Don’t make it potentially impossible • Bad examples: “Mr. Smith”, “Chief Justice of the Supreme Court” • Bad example: “No U.S. national, admitted and resident in Orange County, 15 years experience in subject matter, and fluent in Mandarin.” • Be clear • Bad example: “The parties agree that at least one-half plus one of the appointed arbitrators shall not be Spanish or Argentine or, not being[of either such nationality], shall not be lawyers practicing in said countries.” (Consalvi) • Bad example: “The arbitrators … shall be experts in the subject matter.” (Infored)

  34. Additional ElementsF. Method of Arbitrator Selection • Your opportunity to ensure case is heard by proper arbitrator (one of the biggest advantages of arbitration) • Make sure you have free choice • Usual procedure for three member panel: • Each party picks one (independent!) arbitrator • Chair picked by party appointed arbitrators or by arbitral institution • Don’t have unrealistic expectations • Bad example: “Both parties will name their respective arbitrators within 3 days of the commencement of the arbitration, and the two so named shall name the chair within 5 days of the selection of the second arbitrator.” • Review rules for default mechanism (including timing)

  35. Practical Tip:Selection of Arbitrators • Availability • Independence and Impartiality • Experience in International Arbitration • Particularly important for Chair • Name Recognition, Stature • Legal background (common / civil law) • Language skills • Experience in subject matter

  36. Additional ElementsG. Confidentiality • Privacy vs. Confidentiality • Not absolute: enforcement proceedings; reporting obligations; etc.

  37. Additional ElementsH. Interim Relief • Provide for emergency relief before arbitrators are appointed • Check applicable rules for default procedure • Art. 37 ICDR Rules (“Emergency Measures of Protection”) • ICC: “Pre-arbitral Referee Rules”

  38. III. Procedural Aspects • Service(incl. enforcement / vacatur proceedings) • Discovery / disclosures(IBA, ICDR Guidelines?) • Use of experts • Authentications

  39. III. Procedural Aspects (cont’d) • Oaths • Costs • Reasoned / unreasoned award • Deadline for award • Don’t be unrealistic; provide for potential extension

  40. IV. Special Issues • Equity (“ex aequo et bono”; “amiable compositeur”) • Escalator / step-up clauses • Example: negotiation →mediation →arbitration • Be very specific when and how next step is reached ! • Multiple parties • Claims against parents, affiliates, etc.

  41. IV. Special Issues (cont’d) • Shareholders’ Agreements • Dispute Resolution Boards • Class arbitrations • Appellate procedures • No judicial review (see Hall Street) – but arbitral? • Appellate procedures under foreign law (e.g., English Arbitration Act)?

  42. Conclusion:Make sure all pieces fit together.

  43. Thankyou.

  44. Contact: Thomas N. Pieper Chadbourne & Parke LLP 30 Rockefeller Plaza New York, NY 10112 T +1-212-408-5516 F +1-646-710-5516 E tpieper@chadbourne.com W www.chadbourne.com/tpieper