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Apollo Missions. Spacecraft. Apollo was a three-part spacecraft: C ommand Module (CM)- held the crew's quarters and flight control section Service module (SM)- for the propulsion and spacecraft support systems (when together, the two modules are called CSM
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Spacecraft • Apollo was a three-part spacecraft: • Command Module (CM)- held the crew's quarters and flight control section • Service module (SM)- for the propulsion and spacecraft support systems (when together, the two modules are called CSM • Lunar module (LM)- it takes two of the crew to the lunar surface, supports them on the Moon, and returns them to the CSM in lunar orbit.
Apollo Mission overview • Establishing the technology to meet other national interests in space. • Achieving preeminence in space for the United States. • Carrying out a program of scientific exploration of the Moon. • Developing man's capability to work in the lunar environment.
Apollo 1 • Scheduled to launch Feb. 21, 1967 • January 27, 1967 during a training exercise on the launch pad a fire swept through the command module during a preflight test • Astronauts Virgil Grissom, Edward White and Roger Chaffee lost their lives
Why isn’t there an Apollo 2-6? • After the Apollo 1 fire, they wanted to only use the Apollo name for manned missions. They almost dropped the name for Apollo 1 because it never flew, but out of respect for the fallen crew, they kept the name. • After this, they did 2 test runs that were unmanned with the Apollo spacecraft and by the 3rd test flight they decided to continue the naming scheme of the Apollo missions. The first 2 test flights were not officially named (would be Apollo 2 and 3), but the 3rd test flight they named Apollo 4. • Apollo 5 and 6 were unmanned test flights of the lunar module in orbit of the Earth.
Apollo 7 Launched Oct. 11, 1968 Mission objectives: • Demonstrate how the command and service module (CSM) would perform with a crew • Demonstrate crew, space vehicle and mission support facilities performance during a crewed CSM mission • Demonstrate CSM rendezvous capability
Apollo 8 Launched Dec. 21, 1968 Mission Objective: • Determine how the CSM, crew and support systems would coordinate. • Orbit the moon and track landing sites with out Lunar Module • CSM navigation, communications and midcourse corrections • Consumable assessment and passive thermal control • First astronauts to see the dark side of the moon.
Apollo 9 and 10 Apollo 9 launched March 3, 1969 Mission Objective • Apollo 9 was an Earth-orbital test of the first crewed lunar module, or LM. • Checkout of launch vehicle and spacecraft systems, the crew, and procedures. • The LM was to be tested as a self-sufficient spacecraft, and perform rendezvous and docking maneuvers Apollo 10 launched May 18, 1969 Mission objective • The Apollo 10 mission encompassed all aspects of an actual crewed lunar landing, except the landing. It was the first flight of a complete, crewed Apollo spacecraft to operate around the moon.
Apollo 11 and 12 Apollo 11 Launched July 16, 1969 Mission objective: • Complete a national goal set by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961: perform a crewed lunar landing and return to Earth. • Crewed by Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin • Landed on the moon on July 20, 1969 Apollo 12 launched Nov. 14, 1969 Mission objective: • Extensive series of lunar exploration tasks by the LM, crew, as well as the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, or ALSEP, which was to be left on the moon's surface to gather seismic, scientific and engineering data throughout a long period of time. • Struck by lightning on the way out of Earth’s atmosphere. Didn’t do any damage.
Apollo 13 Launched April 11, 1970 • Apollo 13 was supposed to land in the Fra Mauro area. An explosion on board forced Apollo 13 to circle the moon without landing. • Apollo 13 was to be the third lunar landing attempt, but the mission was aborted after rupture of service module oxygen tank • Famous quote by Jim Lovell “Houston, we’ve had a problem”
Apollo 14-17 • 14 launched Jan. 31, 1971 and landed on the moon • 15 launched July 26, 1971 and landed on the moon • 16 launched April 16, 1972 and landed on the moon • 17 launched Dec. 7, 1972 and landed on the moon