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A History of NASA: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Missions

A History of NASA: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Missions

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A History of NASA: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Missions

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  1. A History of NASA: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo Missions Dr. LaFever And her 2nd and 3rd hour classes Of Parkway North High School March 27, 2013

  2. Mercury Mission By: Lydia Nichols

  3. Dates of the Mission • 4/18/61 – 1st launch simulation at the pad • 5/05/61 – launch • They split the actual launch in half to give the people a rest, the countdown started on the 4th but the launch happened on the 5th • Soviets launched Yuri Gagarin into space on April 12, 1961, upsetting the US’ bid to have the first man in space

  4. Duration, Who, and Mission Duration: 15 min 28 sec Crew: Alan B. Shepard Jr. (Known as the smartest of all Mercury astronauts and famous for staying calm hours on the launch pad, finally announcing “Let’s light this candle!”) Payload: Spacecraft No. 7, Launch Vehicle MR-7 Mission: to see if man is capable to survive in the environment of space; to go out and come back

  5. Highlights and Landing • Highlights: the mission was successful • Landing: May 5, 1961 • 75° 53min longitude • 27° 13.7min latitude • In the Atlantic Ocean

  6. Citations http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/history/mercury/mr-3/mr-3.htm http://rocketry.wordpress.com/2011/05/05/50-years-ago-today-freedom-7/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alan_Shepard_in_capsule_aboard_Freedom_7_before_launch.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alan_Shepard_in_capsule_aboard_Freedom_7_before_launch.jpg http://people.rit.edu/~deb2741/wf/stage2/americanspacerace.html http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Freedom_7_Prelaunch_-_GPN-2000-001009.jpg

  7. Liberty Bell 7 By: Deon Lee, Travis Sowell

  8. Mission/Payload • Mercury-redstone 4 • Was caring :Spacecraft # 11, Launch Vehicle S/N MR-8 • Launch date: July 21, 1961, 7:20 am EST. The launch was originally scheduled for July 18, 1961 but was rescheduled to July 19, 1961 because of unfavorable weather conditions.

  9. Crew • Virgil (Gus) Grissom • Back up crew • John H. Glen Jr.

  10. Highlights/Lowlights • The MR-4 flight plan was very much the same as that for MR-3. The range was 262.5 nautical miles, the maximum altitude was 102.8 nautical miles, and the period of weightlessness lasted for approximately 5 minutes. • Flight successful but the spacecraft was lost during the post landing recovery period as a result of premature actuation of the explosively actuated side egress hatch. The capsule sank in 15,000 feet of water shortly after splashdown. The astronaut egressed from the spacecraft immediately after hatch actuation and was retrieved after being in the water for about 3 to 4minutes.

  11. Landing • Atlantic Ocean, 302 miles East of launch site. Drogue parachute was deployed at T+9 minutes 41 seconds and main parachute at T+10 minutes 14 seconds. Landing occurred at T+15 minutes 37 seconds

  12. Mercury-Atlas 6(Friendship 7) By: Zach Hacker and Matt Rizzo

  13. Basic Summary • February 20th, 1962 is when it was launched • It only last 4 hours and 55 minutes • Mission was called Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) • (CapCom famously says “God speed, John Glenn”)

  14. Command Modules and Lunar Modules • Command Module: Friendship 7 • No Lunar Module

  15. Members of Crew • John Glenn was the only member of the crew • M Scott Carpenter was the backup crew member for Glenn

  16. Highlights and Lowlights • The mission was for John Glenn to be the first astronaut to orbit the Earth, and after 3 trips around the Earth, he returned safely back into the Atlantic Ocean • Everything went as planned and it couldn’t have been a more successful mission in most people’s eyes • It did miss the landing zone by about 40 miles but it was not a huge factor in the end

  17. By: Carleigh Jones and Courtney Mcderby

  18. Dates and Length of Mission • Launched: May 24, 1962. 7:45:16 EST. • Landed: May 24, 1962. 12:41 p.m. EST. 19deg 29min North 64deg 05min West. • Length of Mission: Total time weightless 4 hours 39min 32sec.

  19. He is best known as one of the original seven astronauts selected for NASA's Project Mercury in April 1959. Carpenter was the second American to orbit the Earth and the fourth American in space, following Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom and John Glenn. Carpenter and Glenn are the last living members of the Mercury Seven. Crew Member Command and Lunar Module • Mercury spacecraft and Atlas launch M. Scott Carpenter

  20. Highlights and Lowlights • Highlight: The performance of the launch vehicle was exceptionally good with the countdown, launch and insertion conforming very closely to planned conditions. • Lowlight: Cabin and pressure-suit temperatures were high but not intolerable. Some uncertainties in the data telemetered from the bioinstrumentation prevailed at times during the flight; however, associated information was available which indicated continued well-being of the astronaut.

  21. Re-Entry To Earth • Spacecraft overshot intended target area by 250 nautical miles. After landing, Carpenter reported a severe list angle on the order of 60 degrees from vertical and post flight photographs of the spacecraft taken after egress indicated approximately a 45 degree list angle.

  22. Wally Schirra • Original Mercury astronaut, only astronaut to fly in Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo missions • On October 3, 1962, Schirra became the fifth American in space, piloting the Mercury-Atlas 8(Sigma 7) on a six-orbit mission lasting 9 hours, 13 minutes, and 11 seconds. • The capsule attained a velocity of 17,557 miles per hour (28,255 km/h) and an altitude of 175 statute miles (282 km), orbits the earth six times and landed within 4 miles (6.4 km) of the main Pacific Ocean recovery ship.

  23. Gordon Cooper • Cooper was launched into space on May 15, 1963 aboard the Mercury-Atlas 9 (Faith 7) spacecraft, the last Mercury mission. • He orbited the Earth 22 times and logged more time in space than all five previous Mercury astronauts combined—34 hours, 19 minutes and 49 seconds, traveling 546,167 miles (878,971 km) at 17,547 mph (28,239 km/h), pulling a maximum of 7.6 g (74.48 m/s²). • Orbits 22 times, first to sleep on the launchpad, in space, and last to orbit alone

  24. The Gemini Missions

  25. GeminI 3 • Gus Grissom and John Young • March 23 1965 • Ride the Titan missle • First time there are two people in space together • Issue on re-entry: Oops, the earth rotates beneath us! Gemini 3 splashes down 60 miles short of target landing • Grissom gets massively seasick waiting for crews for over 2 hours, but John Young is a navy veteran and did not mind the waves • Parade in Manhattan follows mission

  26. Gemini 4 By: Aaron Lake and Michael Lorenzo Smith II

  27. Two Man Crew James McDivitt and Edward H. White II

  28. For Your Information .. • Gemini 4 (or Gemini IV) was the second manned space flight in NASA's Project Gemini, occurring in June 1965. • It was the tenth manned American spaceflight • Astronauts James McDivitt and Edward H. White II circled the Earth 66 times in four days, making it the first US flight to approach the five-day flight of the Soviet Vostok 5.

  29. Countiued … • The highlight of the mission was the first space walk by an American, during which White floated free outside the spacecraft, tethered to it, for approximately 20 minutes. • Both of these accomplishments helped the United States overcome the Soviet Union's early lead in the Space Race. • The flight was the first American flight to perform many scientific experiments in space, including use of a sextant to investigate the use of celestial navigation for lunar flight in the Apollo program.

  30. Gemini 7

  31. was a 1965 manned spaceflight in NASA's Gemini program. It was the 4th manned Gemini flight, the 12th manned American flight and the 20th spaceflight of all time. • Spend 14 days in space

  32. Command Pilot • Frank F. Borman, IIFirst spaceflight • Pilot • James A. Lovell, JrFirst spaceflight

  33. Gemini 7 was launched from Complex 19 at 2:30:03 p.m. (2:30:03.702 UT) on 4 December 1965 and inserted into a 161.6 x 328.2 km orbit at 2:36:11

  34. Gemini 6 Duncan Brown & Sean Hayes

  35. Mission Info • Dates: • Original Launch Rocket Explosion: October 25, 1965 at 3:06 p.m. • First Attempt: December 6, 1965 at 9:54 a.m. • Successful attempt: December 15, 1965 8:37 a.m. • Duration of Mission • 1 Day, 1 hour, 51 min, 24 seconds

  36. Mission info (cont.) • Crew Members • Stafford and Schirra (left to right) • Command Module • Gemini 6 • Mission Name • Gemini 6A

  37. Mission Info (cont.) • Highlights • 1 ft. from Gemini 7 • First Instruments Played in Space (Harmonica) • Lowlights • Explosion of the original launch rocket on pad

  38. Reentry • 11 miles from intended landing zone • Recovered by USS Wasp • First Televised recovery

  39. Gemini 9 Grant Dachroeden Jason Bladow

  40. Gemini 8 Alex Moore and Collin Weber

  41. Date of mission The date of the mission was march 16th 1966

  42. Duration of the mission • The duration of this mission was 10 hours and 41 minutes

  43. Crew Members • There were only 2 member of this mission • Neil Armstrong and David Scott

  44. Highlights and lowlights • Early termination of the mission precluded achievement of many mission objectives, but the rendezvous and docking was accomplished, as was the evaluation of the auxiliary tape memory unit and demonstration of controlled reentry. Of the six scientific experiments only the Agena micrometeorite collection was successful. • The others -- (1) zodiacal light photography, (2) frog egg growth, (3) synoptic terrain photography, (4) nuclear emulsions, and (5) spectrophotography of clouds -- were incomplete.

  45. Re-entry • the spacecraft splashed down in the western Pacific Ocean about 800 km west of Okinawa at 25.22 N, 136.00 E, 2 km from the target. The time was 10:22 p.m. , but was during the day at the splashdown site. The crew was picked up by the recovery ship U.S.S. Mason 3 hours later

  46. modules • The Gemini spacecraft was a cone-shaped capsule consisting of two components, a reentry module and an adaptor module. • The adaptor module was an externally skinned, stringer framed structure, with magnesium stringers and an aluminum alloy frame. • The reentry module consisted mainly of the pressurized cabin which held the two Gemini astronauts

  47. Work cited • http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/spacecraftDisplay.do?id=1966-020A

  48. (Gemini 8) • Dave Scott and Neil Armstrong practice docking in space • Thursters get stuck and the command module spins uncontrollably in space • Thanks to the expert piloting of Armstrong, the re-entry rockets he turns on stop the spinning but use up precious fuel • The mission is aborted and splashdown occurs in Okinowa near Japan

  49. Gemini 9A • June 3, 1966 • Duration: 3 days, 0 hours, 20 minutes, 50 seconds • 7th manned Gemini flight • 13th manned American flight