Summary • Start of Race • Causes • Different Approaches • United States Strategy • Mercury / Gemini / Apollo • How to get there. • Soviet Union Strategy • L3 Plan • How to get there. • Strategy Comparison • Achievements and Disappointments
Start of Race • United States is considered second to the USSR for space-flight capabilities. • USSR first for: satellite, man, woman, spacewalk… • President Kennedy’s challenge: "...I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important in the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish..." • Single goal for US: put Man on Moon.
Start of Race • USSR not accepting immediate challenge: • Khrushchev wants new and exciting space events. • Does not want to ally with the United States for a Moon quest – fear of revealing secret technologies. • Focuses on permanent human presence which leads to Salyut missions; Cold War purpose as well.
United States Strategy • Apollo program initially supposed to be Earth orbital flights; after Kennedy’s speech, new plans laid out. • Mercury: • Study human space-flight capabilities. • Gemini: • Study long term space-flight effects. • Development of space navigation – dockings, meetings, two-manned crafts. • Apollo: • Moon Lander and orbiter tests. • Tri-manned crafts.
United States Strategy Mercury Gemini Apollo
United States Strategy • Before man, robots. • Pioneer: film the Moon surface while orbiting. All 3 fail, fourth becomes a solar satellite instead. • Rangers: • Goal is to land. Fourth probe lands 1962, three years after the Soviets. • New goal: to crash land and “snap before death.”
United States Strategy • Surveyor: • Goal to soft land and determine land composition • Lunar Orbiter Project – Map out Moon using pictures and mapping 99% of Moon. • Conclusion: Astronauts can walk on the Moon.
United States Strategy • Mercury • Sub-orbital and orbital flights to test human capabilities to work in space. • First two flights sub-orbital, last four orbital, lasting longer periods (from 3 orbits to 22 ½ orbits.) • Single manned spacecrafts. • Tested two different rocket types, • Tested heat-shield technologies. • Only six men launched into space.
United States Strategy • Gemini • Only two days and six hours of manned spaceflight recorded for the United States after Mercury Project, although Kennedy already declared the race to the Moon: need a step in between to learn more and prepare. • Primary purpose to demonstrate space rendezvous and docking techniques. • Two manned spacecrafts. • 16 Astronauts.
United States Strategy • Apollo • To collect Moon samples. • Place scientific experiments on surface of another celestial body. • Test whether or not humans can work on other world. • 12 astronauts leave foot prints. • Program that introduced first loss of US lives for space – Apollo 1.
United States Strategy • Build the Saturn V rocket, largest launch vehicle to ever leave Earth’s atmosphere, 1968. • Lunar Module (LEM / LM) first flight in Jan 1968. • Command Module built in 1966 – Apollo 1 fire in 1967 causes redesign. • Both spacecraft link and form an internal tunnel inside the spacecraft for astronauts to move about the cabin.
United States Strategy • Plan agreed upon is known as the Lunar Orbit Rendezvous: • Launch from Cape Canaveral, FL (Kennedy today.) • In Earth orbit, dock two spacecrafts. • Three to four day trip to Moon. • Burn phase where spacecraft enters Moon gravity field. • Separation of spacecrafts.
United States Strategy • LEM descent to Moon. • CM Orbits Moon. • LEM Ascension back to dock with CM. • Jettison of LEM in lunar orbit. • CM return to Earth and lands in Ocean.
United States Strategy • Lunar orbit procedure: • Two of the three astronauts travel down the tunnel into the Lunar Module. • Both ships separate, LEM starts descent. • CM pilot orbits Moon while other teammates walk on Moon. • LEM launches from Moon surface and docks with CM. • Both tunnel hatches re-opened, crew travels back to CM. • Exit of Moon orbit, back for Earth.
United States Strategy • To expand exploration radius on Moon, NASA developed Moon Rover:
United States Strategy • Apollo 7: CM test flight around Earth. • Apollo 8: First human orbit around Moon. • Apollo 9: LEM test flight around Earth. • Apollo 10: LEM test flight around Moon. • Apollo 11: First human footprint on Moon. • Apollo 12: Moon landing. • Apollo 13: Explosion inside Service Module – Mission Cancelled. • Apollo 14: Moon Landing. • Apollo 15, 16, 17: Moon landing and Rover.
Soviet Union Strategy • Soviets aim for the Moon soon after Sputnik success, 1959. • Soviets begin designing their rocket, the N1, before Kennedy’s challenge. • Military wants ICBMs instead • Korolev, Chief Designer, convinces Khrushchev to fund Moon program in 1964. • Lunar Project called L3 Project: land cosmonauts on Moon.
Soviet Union Strategy • Project LK-1to send cosmonauts around Moon. • Tight infighting within the space program. • Different booster quarrels brings delays and gambles. • Kuznetsov, booster builder, does not test first stages of rocket. • Khrushchev gone in 1964: LK-1 cancelled.
Soviet Union Strategy • Before man, robots. • Luna Program: 1959 to 1976 • Luna 2: 1st Moon impact • Luna 3: Flyby, first far-side view. • Luna 7, 8: Impact • Luna 9: Moon landing, Feb 1966 • Luna 10, 11, 12, 14: Lunar orbiter • Luna 16: Sample return to Earth, Sept 1970 • Luna 17: Moon rover, Nov 1970
Soviet Union Strategy • N-1 is launch vehicle. • LOK = Command Module. • LK = Lunar Module. • LOK is a slightly modified Soyuz spacecraft, still in use today by Russia.
Soviet Union Strategy • Soviet Plan to Reach Moon: • The N1 rocket delivers the spacecraft system into the low-Earth orbit. • Both spaceships connect. • 3 to 4 -day flight between the Earth and the Moon. • One cosmonaut transfers from the LOK spacecraft to the LK lander, during an EVA. • LK spacecraft separates from the LOK spacecraft and heads for Moon. • Engine firings onboard the LK lander provides for a soft-landing on the Moon surface.
Soviet Union Strategy • Engine firing provides for the liftoff of the LK ascent stage from the lunar surface and reaching lunar orbit. • The spacecrafts dock. • The cosmonaut transfers from the LK lander to the LOK spacecraft during a spacewalk. • LOK capsule separates from living module, reenters Earth atmosphere and lands somewhere in Soviet Union.
Official declaration from US leaders. Three astronauts. Internal connection between ships. Need to test new space travel techniques. No official acceptance of program. No concrete program. Two astronauts. No internal connection between ships. Summary ComparisonUSA USSR
New designs for spacecrafts. Already pioneered space travel tech. Use of old available technologies. Summary ComparisonUSA USSR
Summary ComparisonBoth • 8 loop to Moon. • Capsules. • Docking ships. • Tall, several staged rockets. • Lander designs similar.
AchievementsUnited States Neil Armstrong - Buzz Aldrin Michael Collins Apollo 11 July 20, 1969
AchievementsUnited States • First manned orbit of the Moon, Apollo 8. • First landing on the Moon and man on Moon, Apollo 11. • First vehicle with wheels on Moon, and first vehicle to be driven by man on Moon. • Achieved within time limit imposed by Kennedy, even after his assassination.
AchievementsSoviet Union • First to: • Flyby the Moon. • Impact on the Moon. • Snap pictures of the far side of the Moon. • Land on the Moon. • Land automatic Rover. Robotic Probes
DrawbacksUnited States • Apollo 1 astronauts Gus Grissom, Roger Chaffee and Ed White die during test. • Apollo 13: “Successful failure.” • $136 billion for Apollo project.
DrawbacksSoviet Union • Robotic determination not present for manned spaceflights. • Kuznetsov does not test first stages of N-1 rocket – results in all three tests to fail. • Rockets explode on launch pad or while in the air. • It takes time to convince the Soviet government to fund Moon project, loosing precious time in the race.
DrawbacksSoviet Union • Soviet government changes in 1964, and Moon race, behind Americans, looks less and less promising. • Military still not interested in Moon – they’re happy about Salyut. • First Soyuz fails: capsule to bring Soviets to the Moon does not work, more delays.
DrawbacksSoviet Union • Failure of all N-1 launches. • Lack of support from government. • Soyuz spacecraft inability to function. • Americans already on the Moon. • No purpose for military • All of these lead to cancellation of project.
DrawbacksSoviet Union • Cancellation of project meant they would have to accept failure. Did the Soviets want that? • No : they destroy remaining N-1 spare parts, launch pads and lock up designs to go for the Moon into classified folders, some of which still haven’t re-emerged.