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Verb Consistency. By: Xiangbin, Jennifer, Liang, Amanda, Kevin. Bones: (Basic Rules). Simple Past: Verb + ed / Irregular verbs Completed Action in the Past, Series of Completed Action, Duration in Past, Habits in the Past, Past Facts or Generalizations. Simple Present: Verb + s/es
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Verb Consistency • By: Xiangbin, Jennifer, Liang, Amanda, Kevin
Bones: (Basic Rules) Simple Past: Verb + ed / Irregular verbs Completed Action in the Past, Series of Completed Action, Duration in Past, Habits in the Past, Past Facts or Generalizations
Simple Present: Verb + s/es Now, Repeat Action, Facts or Generalizations, Scheduled Events in Near Future • Simple Future: • Will + verb • Am/are/is + going to + verb • Voluntary Action, Promise, Plan, Prediction
Controlling Shifts in Verb Tense • 1.General guideline: Do NOT shift from one tense to another if the time frame for each action or state is the same. • Example: Sanjeev is an Indian American who went up swimmingly in his career. • Corrected: Sanjeev is an Indian American who goes up swimmingly in his career. • Example: Twinkle found items of Christ and wants to keep them. • Corrected: Twinkle finds items of Christ and wants to keep them.
2. General guideline: Do shift tense to indicate a change in time frame from one action or state to another. • Example: The contradictions between them emerged two months after they moved into the new house. • Corrected: The contradictions between them emerge two months after they moved into the new house. • (The "emerge" happens during the events of the story, but they moved in before the contradictions began) • Example: Twinkle found items of Christ which were left by the original owner of the house. • Corrected: Twinkle finds items of Christ which were left by the original owner of the house.
Controlling Shifts in a Paragraph or Essay • General guideline: Establish a primary tense for the main discourse, and use occasional shifts to other tenses to indicate changes in time frame. • Rely on past tense to narrate events and to refer to an author or an author's ideas as historical entities. • Use present tense to state facts, to refer to perpetual or habitual actions, and to discuss your own ideas or those expressed by an author in a particular work. Also use present tense to describe action in a literary work, movie, or other fictional narrative. • Future action may be expressed in a variety of ways, including the use of will, shall, is going to, are about to, tomorrow and other adverbs of time, and a wide range of contextual cues.
QUIZ • #1. Find an error and correct it. • “The instructor explains the diagram to students who asked questions during the lecture.” • #2 Find an error and correct it. • “About noon the sky darkened, a breeze sprang up, and a low rumble announces the approaching storm.” • #3) (T/F) in a correct tense consistency or not? • “Before they even began deliberations, many jury members had reached a verdict.”
#4. List 2 uses of simple past. • #5. When simple present tense should be used?