Colonial History of Sudan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Egyptian_Sudan
Turko - Egyptian Rule • In 1820, Muhammad Ali, the Turkish Pasha of Egypt, sent two military expeditions south and westward into Sudan. • Thus began the period of Turko-Egyptian rule in Sudan, which lasted until1885.
Turko - Egyptian Rule • It appears that Muhammad Ali invaded Sudan mainly in the hope of obtaining gold and black men to enlist in his army, which he intended to use in his schemes against his own master, the Ottoman Sultan. • About 1850, the first Christianmissionaries arrived in southern Sudan. • Generally speaking, the Turko-Egyptian government of the Sudan was doomed to failure. The appointed officials lacked public spirit, were unpopular among the people and were considered as a burden for the country.
The Mahdiya • In 1881, a religious leader, Mohamed Ahmed El Mahdi, led a revolt against the government. • His rebellion, for both religious and political reform, was widely successful. It triumphed with the capture of Khartoum, where General Gordon, who was the last Turkish governor, was killed in 1885. • On the advice of the British, who had occupied Egypt since 1882, the Turko-Egyptian government was withdrawn. • Although the Mahdi died in the same year, the Sudan under his successor, the Khalifa Abd Allah remained independent until 1898. • Image of the Mahdi from: http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/1999/437/chrncls.htm
British – Egyptian RuleThe Condominium • British fear of the establishment of French influence over the Upper Nile area, led to the re-conquest of the Sudan. • An Anglo-Egyptian force led by General Kitchener, invaded Sudan between 1896 and 1898.
British – Egyptian RuleThe Condominium The British administered northern and southern Sudan as separate colonies; requiring a passport to travel between them and banning the slave trade. The British “closed door” laws expelled northern Arab merchants from the south and discouraged Islam plus Arabic customs. They provided money to support Christian Missionary schools and social services in the south but developed roads only in the north. (Image contrasts Sudanese railroads with camels as transportation at the time of independence.) http://www.historycentral.com/Africa/SudanIndep.html
British – Egyptian RuleThe Condominium • When this the “closed door” was opened in World War Two, only four of the 800 government officials appointed by the British were from the South. (Hyperlink provides images of Anglo-Sudan warrior, policemen, and camel-mounted, British trained soldiers) http://iarchives.nysed.gov/Gallery/gallery.jsp?id=38
Independence for Sudan • During 1951-1953, Negotiations regarding the future of Sudan were finally successful in February 1953, when the British and the Egyptian left. • There was to have been a three-year period of self-government under international supervision and guidance to foster unity within the Sudanese people. • In November 1955, however, Sudan declared complete independence. Civil War between Northern and Southern Sudan began in the same year. What have you learned from this presentation that could have caused a civil war?
Bibliography Sudan Embassy: History of Sudan- The Land and Location http://www.sudan-embassy.co.uk/infobook/history.php http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_AngloEgyptian_condominium (Additional Images available from Dr. Dunbars’ PowerPoint on Sudan)